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Preference :. The result is that, for some, the kinematics and dynamics of machines has remained a critical component of the curriculum and a requirement for all mechanical engineering students, while at others, a course on these subjects is only made available as an elective topic for specialized study by a small number of engineering students.
Some schools, depending largely on the faculty, require a greater emphasis on mechanical design at the expense of depth of knowledge in analytical techniques. Rapid advances in technology, however, have produced a need for a textbook that satisfies the requirement of new and changing course structures. This book is intended to cover that field of engineering theory, analysis, design, and practice that is generally described as mechanisms or as kinematics and dynamics of machines. Although this text is written primarily for students of mechanical engineering, the content can also be of considerable value to practicing engineers throughout their professional careers.
Download Engineering Drawing and Design Content :. Author : Engineeringbooks. The scale to which the part is drawn and the actual size of the part are shown as an equation, the drawing scale shown first.
With reference to the scale, the left side of the equation represents a unit of the size drawn; the right side represents the equivalent 5 units of measurement of the actual object. Scales are made with a variety of combined scales marked on their surfaces. This combination of scales spares the drafter the necessity of calculating the sizes to be drawn when working to a scale other than full size. Metric Scales The linear unit of measurement for mechanical drawings is the millimeter.
Scale multipliers and divisors of 2 and 5 are recommended Fig. The units of measurement for architectural drawings are the meter and millimeter. The same scale multipliers and divisors used for mechanical drawings are used for architectural drawings. The divisions, or parts of an inch, can be used to represent feet, yards, rods, or miles. This scale is also useful in mechanical drawing when the drafter is dealing with decimal dimensions. On fractional inch scales, multipliers or divisors of 2, 4, 8, and 16 are used, offering such scales as full size, half size, and quarter size.
Inch U. They differ from the inch scales in that each major division represents a foot, not an inch, and end units are subdivided into inches or parts of an inch. The more common scales are Ys in. The most commonly used inch and foot scales are shown in Table , p. There are three types of scales that show various values that are equal to 1 inch in.
They are the decimal inch scale, the fractional inch scale, and the scale that has divisions of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 80 parts to the inch. The last scale is known as the civil engineer's scale. It is used for making maps and charts. In this case, revolve the object about an axis perpendicular to the vertical plane until surface OAB is parallel to the profile plane. In Fig. The front view now shows line OA in its true length because this line is now parallel to the vertical plane.
In this case, instead of the whole object being revolved, just line OA is turned in the top view until it is horizontal at OA. The point A 1 can then be projected to the front view. There, OA 1 will show line OA at its true length. You can revolve a line in any view to make it parallel to any one of the three principal planes.
Projecting the line on the plane to which it is parallel will show its true length. The true length of line OA then shows in the top view.
Space 1 shows a three-view drawing of a block in its simplest position. The front view was drawn first, copying the front view in space 1. The top view was obtained by projecting up from the front view and across from the top view of space 1. The top view was drawn first, copied from the top view of space 1. The side view was drawn first, copied from the side view in space 2. The widths of the front and top views were projected from the front view of space 2. See Assignment 6 for Unit on page It is normally identified by two or more projections.
Notice that the unfolding of the three planes forms a two-dimensional surface with the fold lines remaining. The fold lines are labeled as shown to indicate that F represents the front view, T represents the top view, and S represents the profile or right-side view.
Lines in Space Lines in descriptive geometry are grouped into three classes depending on how they are positioned in relation to the reference lines. Normal Lines A line that is perpendicular to the reference plane a normal line will project as a point on that plane.
Inclined lines appear inclined in one plane, as shown in Fig. The inclined line shown in the front view will be the true length of line AB. Inclined Lines Oblique Lines A line that appears inclined in all three views is an oblique line. It is neither parallel nor perpendicular to any of the three planes.
The true length of the line is not shown in any of these views Fig. True Length of an Oblique Line by Auxiliary View Projection Since a normal line and an inclined line have projections parallel to a principal plane, the true length of each can be seen in that projection.
Since an oblique line is not parallel to any of the three principal reference planes, an auxiliary reference line RL3 can be placed parallel to any one of the oblique lines, as shown in Fig. Transfer distances M and N shown in the regular views to the auxiliary view, locating points A 1 and B 1, respectively. Join points A 1 and B 1 with a line, obtaining the true length of line AB. To place point C on the line in the other two views, it is necessary to project construction lines perpendicular to the reference lines RL 1 and RL 2, as shown in Fig.
The construction lines are projected to line ArBr in the top view and to line AsBs in the side view, locating point C on the line in these views. This reference line is used to draw the primary auxiliary view. See Assignments 7 and 8 for Unit on page This is the true length of line AB.
A plane may be represented or determined by intersecting lines, two parallel lines, a line and a point, three points, or a triangle. The three basic planes, referred to as the normal plane, inclined plane, and oblique plane, are identified by their relationship to the three principal reference planes.
Figure illustrates the three basic planes, each plane being triangular in shape. Normal Plane A normal plane is one whose surface, in this case a triangular surface, appears in its true shape in the front view and as a line in the other two views.
Inclined Plane An inclined plane results when the shape of the triangular plane appears distorted in two views and as a line in the other view. An oblique plane is one whose shape appears distorted in all three views.
To find their locations in the other views, the following procedures may be used. Point-on-point view of a line. Locating a Point on a Plane The top and front views shown in Fig.
To find their location in the other views, refer to Fig. To locate point R in the front view Fig. To locate pointS in the top view Fig. The piercing point of the line through the plane is found as follows see Fig. The piercing point of the line through the plane is found as described on page From distances such as R and S shown in the top view, complete the auxiliary view.
This locates the piercing point Op in the front view. This locates the piercing point Or in the top view. To establish which of the pipes lies in front of the other, the following procedure is used. To establish the visible pipe at the crossing shown in the top view Fig. To establish the visible pipe at the crossing shown in the front view Fig. Figure C shows the correct crossings of the pipes. Visibility of Lines and Surfaces by Testing When points or lines are approximately the same distance away from the viewer, it may be necessary to graphically check the visibility of lines and points, as in Fig.
Figure C shows the completed top and front views of the part. Visibility of Lines and Surfaces by Observation In order to fully understand the shape of an object, it is neces- sary to know which lines and surfaces are visible in each of the views. Determining their visibility can, in most cases, be done by inspection.
With reference to Fig. However, the visibility of lines and surfaces within the outline must be determined. This is accomplished by determining the position of Or in the front view.
Since position OF is the closest point to the reference line RL1 in the front view, it must be the point that is closest to the when viewing the top view. Thus it can lines converging to point Or are visible. Since OpCpDp, it cannot be seen.
The resulting line A1B 1 in the auxiliary view is the true length of line AB. Figure illustrates the application of the point-on-point view of a line to determine the clearance between a hydraulic cylinder and a clip on the wheel housing.
The resulting line A 1B 1 in the primary auxiliary view is the true length of line AB. STEP 2. A plane that is not parallel to a primary plane is not shown in its true shape.
To show a plane in true view, it must be revolved until it is parallel to a projection plane. Figure A shows an oblique plane ABC in the top and front views. The object is to find the true view of this plane. When the top and front views are examined carefully, no line is parallel to the reference line in either view. The line DFCF is shown in its true length. The resulting line A 1B 1 is the edge view of the plane.
The true shape of plane ABC is shown in this view. Design Application Figure shows the application of the procedure followed for Fig. Planes in Combination Figure , demonstrates a solution in which a combination of planes is involved. Also, line BC is common to both planes. The procedure is as follows. The true length of line BC is shown in this view. This view shows line BC as a point-onpoint view. Therefore, projecting perpendicularly from the edge view in secondary auxiliary view 1 to the secondary auxiliary view 2 shows not only the true length of lines BC and AB but also the true angle of ABC.
Therefore, projecting perpendicularly from the edge views in secondary auxiliary view 1 to the secondary auxiliary view 3 shows not only the true length of line BC but also the true angle BCD.
See Assignments 15 and 16 for Unit on pages The true angle between the line and the plane will be shown in the view that shows the edge view of the plane and the true length of the line. Project this point back to the front view and then up to the top view to establish the point of intersection of these two views. This view shows the true length of line UV and the true angle between the line and edge view of the plane. The true angle between the two planes is seen in this view.
Edge lines of two planes. The resulting line A 1B 1, is the true length of line AB. See Assignments 17 through 19 for Unit on pages Auxiliary views are used to replace orthographic views 2. Such surfaces are called sloping or inclined surfaces. Auxiliary views show the surface clearly and without distortion. A series of points on a line is used to draw the true-shape projection of a curved surface.
Another way is to mentally revolve the object. Imagining that an axis has been passed through the object is an aid to this approach. The true shape of an oblique surface is found by successive revolutions. The true size of an inclined surface or the true length of a line is found by either an auxiliary view or a revolved view.
Points in space can be located by dots or crosses. Points are usually identified by two or more projections. Lines are grouped into three categories: normal lines, inclined lines, and oblique lines. The three basic planes in space are the normal plane, the inclined plane, and the oblique plane. The visibility of lines and surfaces in space can be determined by testing or by observation.
Different procedures are needed to find the distance from a point to a line and the shortest distance between two oblique lines. The three primary planes of projection are horizontal, vertical or frontal , and profile. The true angle between a line and a plane will be shown in the view that shows the edge view of the plane and the true length of the line.
The true angle of two planes is found by determining the point-on-point view of the line of intersection made by the two planes. Make a working drawing of one of the parts shown in Figs. For Fig. For all others draw the top, front, and auxiliary view. Partial views are to be used unless you are otherwise directed by your instructor. Hidden lines may be added for clarity. Scale 1: 1. Refer to the drawing for setup of views. Draw complete top and front views and a partial auxiliary view.
Refer to the drawings for setup of views. Draw complete top and front views and partial auxiliary views. Draw partial auxiliary views for Fig. The selection and placement of views are shown with the drawing. Only partial auxiliary views need be drawn, and hidden lines may be added to improve clarity.
Select one of the parts shown in Fig. H J f--z. Scale to suit. With the use of a grid and reference lines, locate the lines in the other views for the drawings shown in Fig. Locating a Plane or a Line in Space. With the use of a grid and reference lines, complete the three drawings shown in Fig.
With the use of a grid and reference lines, complete the drawings shown in Fig. Visibility of Lines and Suifaces by Observation and Testing.
With the use of a grid and reference lines, lay out the drawings shown in Fig. By observation, sketch the circular pipes drawings 1 and 2 in a manner similar to that shown in Fig. By testing in the manner shown in Fig.
Establishing Visibility of Lines and Surfaces by Testing. Dimensioning Chords, Arcs, and Angles The difference in dimensioning chords, arcs, and angles is shown in Fig. It may be better to show the note on two or more lines than to use a single line note that might be misread Fig. Spherical Features Spherical surfaces may be dimensioned as diameters or radii, but the dimension should be used with the abbreviations SR or S0 Fig.
Cylindrical Holes Plain, round holes are dimensioned in various ways, depending upon design and manufacturing requirements Fig. However, the leader is the method most commonly used. When a leader is used to specify diameter sizes, as with small holes, the dimension is identified as a diameter by placing the diameter symbol 0 in front of the numerical value.
The size, quantity, and depth may be shown on a single line, or on several lines if preferable. For through holes, the abbreviation THRU should follow the dimension if the drawing does not make this clear. The depth dimension of a blind hole is the depth of the full diameter and is normally included as part of the dimensioning note. When more than one hole of a size is required, the number of holes should be specified.
Slotted Holes Elongated holes and slots are used to compensate for inaccuracies in manufacturing and to provide for adjustment. See Fig. The method selected to locate the slot depends on how the slot was made. The method shown in Fig. Figure A shows the dimensioning method used when the slot is machined out. Countersinks, Counterbores, and Spotfaces Fig. The symbols or abbreviations indicate the form of the surface only and do not restrict the methods used to produce that form.
The dimensions for them are usually given as a note, preceded by the size of the through hole Figs. A countersink is an angular-sided recess that accommodates the head of flathead screws, rivets, and similar items. The diameter at the surface and the included angle are given. When the depth of the tapered section of the Minimizing leaders.
A Fig. For counterdrilled holes, the diameter, depth, and included angle of the counterdrill are given. A counterbore is a flat-bottomed, cylindrical recess that permits the head of a fastening device, such as a bolt, to lie recessed into the part. The diameter, depth, and corner radius are specified in a note. In some cases, the thickness of the remaining stock may be dimensioned rather than the depth of the counterbore.
A spotface is an area in which the surface is machined just enough to provide smooth, level seating for a bolt head, nut, or washer. The diameter of the faced area and either the depth or the remaining thickness are given. A spotface may be specified by a general note and not delineated on the drawing. If no depth or remaining thickness is specified, it is implied that the spotfacing is the minimum depth necessary to clean up the surface to the specified diameter.
The symbols for counterbore or spotface, countersink, and depth are shown in Figs. In each case the symbol precedes the dimension. Reference and Source Material 1. ASME Yl4. ASME Y See Assignments 4 through 6 for Unit on pages A space is shown between the X and the dimension. An X that means "by" is often used between coordinate dimensions specified in note form.
Where both are used on a drawing, care must be taken to ensure that each is clear Fig. Chamfers The process of chamfering, that is, cutting away the inside or outside piece, is done to facilitate assembly. Chamfers are normally dimensioned by giving their angle and linear length Fig. When a very small chamfer is permissible, primarily to break a sharp corner, it may be dimensioned but not drawn, as in Fig.
Internal chamfers may be dimensioned in the same manner, but it is often desirable to give the diameter over the chamfer. The angle may also be given as the included angle if this is a design requirement.
This type of dimensioning is generally necessary for larger diameters, especially those over 2 in. Chamfers are never measured along the angular surface. Figure D is the preferred method of dimensioning slopes on architectural and structural drawings. Slopes and Tapers Slope A slope is the slant of a line representing an inclined surface. It is expressed as a ratio of the difference in the heights at right angles to the base line, at a specified distat?
When the taper symbol is used, the vertical leg is always shown to the left and precedes the ratio figures. L '0 Basic Dimensioning or millimeter and may be the straight pitch, circular pitch, or diametral pitch. For cylindrical surfaces, the diametral pitch is preferred. The knurling symbol is optional and is used only to improve clarity on working drawings.
Formed Parts In dimensioning formed parts, the inside radius is usually specified, rather than the outside radius, but all forming dimensions should be shown on the same side if possible. Dimensions apply to the side on which the dimensions are shown unless otherwise specified Fig.
Knurls Knurling is specified in terms of type, pitch, and diameter before and after knurling Fig. The letter P precedes the pitch number. When control is not required, the diameter after knurling is omitted.
When only portions of a feature require knurling, axial dimensions must be provided. When required to provide a press fit between parts, knurling is specified by a note on the drawing that includes the type of knurl required, the pitch, the toleranced diameter of the feature prior to knurling, and the minimum acceptable diameter after knurling.
Commonly used types are straight, diagonal, spiral, convex, raised diamond, depressed diamond, and radial. The pitch is usually expressed in terms of teeth per inch It is indicated on the drawing by a note listing the width first and then the diameter. If the radius is shown at the bottom of the undercut, it will be assumed that the radius is equal to one-half the width unless otherwise specified, and the diameter will apply to the center of the undercut.
When the size of the undercut is unimportant, the dimension may be left off the drawing. Wire, sheet metal, and drill rod, which are manufactured to gage or code sizes, should be shown by their decimal dimensions; but gage numbers, drill letters, and so on, may be shown in parentheses following those dimensions.
Sheet -. In such instances, the area or length is indicated by a chain line Fig. When a length of surface is indicated, the chain line is drawn parallel and adjacent to the surface.
When an area of surface is indicated, the area is crosshatched within the chain line boundary Fig. References and Source Material 1. See Assignments 7 through 12 for Unit on pages Unit production refers to cases when each part is to be made separately, using generalpurpose tools and machines. Mass production refers to parts produced in quantity, where special tools and gages are usually provided.
Either linear or angular dimensions may locate features with respect to one another point-to-point or from a datum. Dimensions from a datum may be necessary if a part with more than one critical dimension must mate with another part. The following systems of dimensioning are used more commonly for engineering drawings. When the center lines are designated as the base zero lines, positive and negative values will occur.
These values are shown with the dimensions locating the holes. Polar Coordinate Dimensioning Rectangular Coordinate Dimensioning This is a method for indicating distance, location, and size by means of linear dimensions measured parallel or perpendicular to reference axes or datum planes that are perpendicular to one another.
Coordinate dimensioning with dimension lines must clearly identify the datum features from which the dimensions originate Fig. Polar coordinate dimensioning is commonly used in circular planes or circular configurations of features.
Chordal Dimensioning Rectangular Coordinates for Arbitrary Points Coordinates for arbitrary points of reference without a grid appear adjacent to each point Fig. CAD systems will automatically display any point coordinate when it is picked. The chordal dimensioning system may also be used for the spacing of points on the circumference of a circle relative to a datum, when manufacturing methods indicate that this will be convenient Fig.
Rectangular Coordinate Dimensioning without Dimension Lines Dimensions may be shown on extension lines True-Position Dimensioning without the use of dimension lines or arrowheads.
The base lines may be zero coordinates, or they may be labeled as X, Y, and Z Fig. True-position dimensioning has many advantages over the coordinate dimensioning system Fig.
Because of its scope, it is covered as a complete topic in Chap. Tabular dimensioning is a type of coordinate dimensioning in which dimensions from mutually perpendicular planes are listed in a table on the drawing rather than on the pictorial delineation. This method is used on drawings that require the location of a large number of similarly shaped features when parts for numerical control are dimensioned Fig.
Tabular Dimensioning Chain Dimensioning When a series of dimensions is applied on a point-to-point basis, it is called chain dimensioning Fig.
A possible disadvantage of this system is that it may result in an undesirable accumulation of tolerances between individual features. See Unit Half the width of the key extends above the shaft and into the hub. Refer to the Appendix for exact sizes. Woodruff keys are identified by a number that gives the nominal dimensions of the key. The numbering system, which originated many years ago, is identified with the fractional-inch system of measurement.
The last two digits of the number give the normal diameter in eighths of an inch, and the digits preceding the last two give the nominal width in thirty-seconds of an inch. For example, a No. However, in most industries fractions are now converted to decimal-inch sizes as shown in Fig. When keys are to be specified, only the information shown in the callout in Fig.
Dimensioning of Keyseats Keyseats and keyways are dimensioned by width, depth, location, and, if required, length.
The depth of the keyway is dimensioned from the opposite side of the shaft or hole Fig. This is always the depth at the large end of the tapered keyway and is indicated on the drawing by the abbreviation LE. The radii of fillets, when required, must be dimensioned on the drawing. Since standard milling cutters for Woodruff keys have the same number as the key, it is possible to call for a Woodruff keyway by the number only. When detailing Woodruff keyways on a drawing, all dimensions are given in the form of a note in the following order: width, depth, and radius of Tapered Keyways cutter.
Alternatively, Woodruff keyways may be dimensioned in the same manner as for square and flat keys, with the width and then the depth specified Fig. Splines and Serrations A splined shaft is a shaft having multiple grooves, or keyseats, cut around its circumference for a portion of its length, in order that a sliding engagement may be made with corresponding internal grooves of a mating part. Splines are capable of carrying heavier loads than keys, permit lateral movement of a part, parallel to the axis of the shaft, while maintaining positive rotation, and allow the attached part to be indexed or changed to another angular position.
Splines have either straight-sided teeth or curved-sided teeth. The latter type is known as an involute spline. There are two types of fits, the side fit and the majordiameter fit Fig. They have been used in many applications in the automotive and machine industries.
They are primarily used for holding parts, such as plastic knobs, on steel shafts. Drawing Data It is essential that a uniform system of drawing and specifying splines and serrations be used on drawings. The conventional method of showing and calling out splines on a drawing is shown in Fig. Distance L does not include the cutter runout. ASME Bl8. ASME Bl?. ASME Bl7. See Assignments 1 and 2 for Unit on pages They can be separated into two groups: semipermanent and quick-release.
Holding laminated sections together with surfaces either drawn up tight or separated in some fixed relationship. Fastening machine parts where accuracy of alignment is a primary consideration. Locking components on shafts, in the form of transverse pin key.
Standard pins have a taper of measured on the diameter. Basic dimension is the diameter of the large end. Used for lightduty service in the attachment of wheels, levers, and similar components to shafts.
Torque capacity is determined on the basis of double shear, using the average diameter along the tapered section in the shaft for area calculations. Miscellaneous Types of Fasteners Standard nominal diameters for clevis pins range from.
Basic function of the clevis pin is to connect mating yoke, or fork, and eye members in knuckle-joint assemblies. Held in place by a small cotter pin or other fastening means, it provides a mobile joint construction, which can be readily disconnected for adjustment or maintenance. Locking device for other fasteners. Used with a castle or slotted nut on bolts, screws, or studs, it provides a convenient, low-cost locknut assembly.
Hold standard clevis pins in place. Can be used with or without a plain washer as an artificial shoulder to lock parts in position on shafts. Semipermanent Pins Semipermanent pin fasteners require application of pressure or the aid of tools for installation or removal. The two basic types are machine pins and radial locking pins.
Note: Inch mm length of the chamfer at each end for maximum locking effect. Machine Pins Four types are generally considered to be most commonly used: hardened and ground dowel pins and commercial straight pins, taper pins, clevis pins, and standard cotter pins. Descriptive data and recommended assembly practices for these four traditional types of machine pins are presented in Fig.
For proper size selection of cotter pins, refer to Table Radial Locking Pins Two basic pin forms are employed: solid with grooved surfaces and hollow spring pins, which may be either slotted or spiral-wrapped as shown in Fig. Grooved Straight Pins Locking action of the grooved pin is provided by parallel, longitudinal grooves uniformly spaced around the pin surface.
Rolled or pressed into solid pin stock, the grooves expand the effective pin diameter. When the pin is driven into a drilled hole corresponding in size to nominal pin diameter, elastic deformation of the raised groove edges produces a secure force-fit with the hole wall. On page , Figure shows six types of the grooved-pins that have been standardized.
For typical grooved pin applications and size selection, refer to Table and Fig. Hollow Spring Pins Resilience of hollow cylinder walls under radial compression forces is the principle under which spiral-wrapped and slotted tubular pins function Fig.
Both pin forms are made to controlled diameters greater than the holes into which they are pressed. Compressed when driven into the hole, the pins exert spring pressure against the hole wall along their entire engaged length to produce a locking action. For added strong standard slotted tubular pins are designed so that several sizes can be used inside one another.
In such combinations, shear strength of the individual pins is cumulative. For spring pin applications, refer to Fig. Used for general purpose fastening. Expanded dimension of this pin is held to a maximum over the full grooved length to provide uniform locking action.
It is recommended for applications subject to severe vibration or shock loads where maximum locking effect is required. Grooves extend half length of the pin. Used as a hinge or linkage "bolt" but also can be employed for other functions in through-drilled holes where a locking fit over only part of the pin length is required.
It is the counterpart of the Type B pin for assembly in blind holes. Used as a cotter pin or in similar functions where an artificial shoulder or a locking fit over the center portion of the pin is required. Same as Type C. Quick-release pins can be divided into two basic types: push-pull and positive-locking pins.
The positive-locking pins can be further divided into three categories: heavy-duty cotter pins, single-acting pins, and double-acting pins. For some quick-release fasteners, the locking action is independent of insertion and removal forces.
As in the case of push-pull pins, these pins are primarily suited for shear-load applications. However, some degree of tension loading usually can be tolerated without affecting the pin function.
Push-Pull Pins These pins are made with either a solid or a hollow shank, containing a detent assembly in the form of a locking lug, button, or ball, backed up by some type of resilient core, plug, or spring. The detent member projects from the surface of the pin body until sufficient force is applied in assembly or removal to cause it to retract against the spring action of the resilient core and release the pin for movement. Machine Design, Fastening and joining reference issue.
Retaining rings, or snap rings, are used to provide a removable shoulder to accurately locate, retain, or lock components on shafts and in bores of housings see Fig. They are easily installed and removed, and since they are usually made of spring steel, retaining rings have a high shear strength and impact capacity.
In addition to fastening and positioning, a number of rings are designed for taking up end play caused by accumulated tolerances or wear in the parts being retained. In general, these Stamped Retaining Rings Stamped retaining rings, in contrast to wire-formed rings with their uniform cross-sectional area, have a tapered radial width that decreases symmetrically from the center section to the free ends.
This constant circularity ensures maximum contact surface with the bottom of the groove. Stamped retaining rings can be classified into three groups: axially assembled rings, radially assembled rings, and self-locking rings which do not require grooves. Axially assembled rings slip over the ends of shafts or down into bores; radially assembled rings have side openings that permit the rings to be snapped directly into grooves on a shaft.
Commonly used types of stamped retaining rings are illustrated and compared in Fig. Wire-Formed Retaining Rings The wire-formed retaining ring is a split ring formed and cut from spring wire of uniform cross-sectional size and shape.
The wire is cold-drawn or rolled into shape from a continuous coil or bar. Then the gap ends are cut into various configurations for ease of application and removal. Rings are available in many cross-sectional shapes, but the most commonly used are the rectangular and circular cross sections. Spiral-Wound Retaining Rings Spiral-wound retaining rings consist of two or more turns of rectangular material, wound on edge to provide a continuous crimped or uncrimped coil.
Controlled action springs have a well-defined function, or a constant range of action for each cycle of operation. Examples are valve, die, and switch springs. Controlled Action Springs Variable-Action Springs Variable-action springs have a changing range of action because of the variable conditions imposed upon them. Examples are suspension, clutch, and cushion springs.
Static Springs Static springs exert a comparatively constant pressure or tension between parts. Examples are packing or bearing pressure, antirattle, and seal springs. Types of Springs The type or name of a spring is determined by characteristics such as function, shape of material, application, or design. Figure illustrates common springs in use. Figure provides spring nomenclature. Compression Springs A compression spring is an open-coiled helical spring that offers resistance to a compressive force see Fig.
ASME B ASME B See Assignments 6 through 8 for Unit on pages Figure A shows the ends commonly used on compression springs. Plain open ends are produced by straight cutoff with no reduction of helix angle Fig. The spring should be guided on a rod or in a hole to operate satisfactorily. Ground open ends are produced by parallel grinding of open-end coil springs.
Advantages of this type of end are improved stability and a larger number of total coils. Plain closed ends are produced with a straight cutoff and with reduction of helix angle to obtain closed-end coils, resulting in a more stable spring. Ground closed ends are produced by parallel grinding of closed-end coil springs, resulting in maximum stability. Thus, proper consideration Torsion Springs Springs exerting pressure along a path that is a circular arc, or in other words, providing a torque turning action , are called torsion springs, motor springs, power springs, and so on.
The term torsion spring is usually applied to a helical spring of round, square, or rectangular wire, loaded by torque. The variation in ends used is almost limitless, but a few of the more common types are illustrated in Fig. A torsion bar spring is a relatively straight bar anchored at one end, on which a torque may be exerted at the other end, thus tending to twist or rotate it about its axis. A fiat coil spring, also known as a clock or motor spring, consists of a strip of tempered steel wound on an arbor and usually confined in a case or drum.
The types of ends shown in Fig. Different types of ends can be used on the same type of spring. Torsion Bar Springs An extension spring is a close-coiled, helical spring that offers resistance to a pulling force. It is made from round or square wire see Figs. Springs may be used in multiple arrangements, as shown in Fig. Dimensioning Springs. Spring Drawings On working drawings, a schematic drawing of a helical spring is recommended to save drafting time Fig.
As in screw-thread representation, straight lines are used m place of the helical curves. The spring clip is generally self-retaining. Dart-shaped panel retaining elements have hips to engage within panel or component holes. The top of arms of the fastener can be formed in any shape to perform unlimited fastening functions. Dart-Type Spring Clips Stud Receiver Clips There are three basic types of stud receivers: push-ons, tubular types, and self-threading fasteners.
All are designed to make attachments to unthreaded studs, rivets, pins, or rods of metal or plastic. These fasteners incorporate self-retaining elements for engaging panel holes or mounting on panel edges and flanges. Spring-clip cable, wire, and tubing fasteners are frontmounting devices, requiring no access to the back of the panel. Cable, Wire, and Tube Clips Molding retaining clips are formed with legs that hold the clips to a panel and arms that positively engage the flanges of various sizes and shapes Spring Molding Clips of trim molding and pull the molding tightly to the attaching panel.
The fastening function is accomplished by using inward compressive spring force to secure assembly components or provide self-retrntion after installation. General Motors Corp. The Wallace Barnes Co. See Assignments 9 through 11 for Unit on pages A myriad of manufactured products and structures, both small and large, are held together by these fasteners.
Rivets are classified as permanent fastenings, as distinguished from removable fasteners, such as bolts and screws. Basically, a rivet is a ductile metal pin that is inserted through holes in two or more parts, and having the ends formed over to securely hold the parts.
Another important reason for riveting is versatility, with respect to both the properties of rivets as fasteners and the method of clinching. Riveted joints are neither watertight nor airtight, although such a joint may be attained at some added cost by using a sealing compound. The riveted parts cannot be disassembled for maintenance or replacement without knocking the rivet out and installing a new one in place for reassembly. Common riveted joints are shown in Fig.
Miscellaneous Types of Fasteners types: butt and lapped. The more common types of large rivets are shown in Fig. In order to show the difference between shop rivets rivets that are installed at the shop andfield rivets rivets that are installed on the site , two types of symbols are used.
When shop rivets are drawn, the diameter of the rivet head is shown on the drawings. For field rivets, the shaft diameter is used. Figure p. Rivets for Aerospace Equipment The following representation of rivets on drawings for aerospace equipment is also recommended for other fields of work involving rivets.
Today, however, high-strength bolts have almost completely replaced rivets in field connections because of cost, strength, and the noise factor. On a C A2 size sheet make a two-view assembly drawing front and side of the grinder shown in Fig. Include on the drawing an item list and identification part numbers. Scale 1: I. Make detail drawings of parts 1 and 4 shown in Fig. Make an exploded isometric assembly drawing of one of the assemblies shown in Figs.
Use center lines to align parts. Scale Make an exploded assembly drawing in orthographic projection of one of the assemblies shown in Figs. Use center lines to align the parts. Make a three-view detail assembly drawing of any one of the assemblies shown in Figs.
Include on the drawing the method of assembly i. Include in the item list Detail and Assembly Drawings the assembly parts. The student is to select scale and drawing paper size. Design a table of your choice. Show on the drawing how the sides and feet are designed and fastened.
Book rack. Select a plain journal bearing from the Appendix. Convert to decimal inch dimensions. Identify the hole and shaft sizes for the fits shown. A broken-out or partial section view is recommended to show the interior features. Include on the drawing pertinent dimensions, identification part numbers, and an item list. Four mm bolts fasten the wheel to an 8-mm plate. Scale l: 1. On a B A3 size sheet make a partial-section assembly drawing of the idler pulley shown in Fig.
Place on the drawing dimensions suitable for a catalog. Add to the drawing an item list and identification part numbers. Detail and Assembly Drawings r 4. In one method, the object is divided mentally into a number of sections and the sections are created one at a time in their proper relationship to one another.
In the second method, a box is created with the maximum height, width, and depth of the object; then the parts of the box that are not part of the object are removed, leaving the pieces that form the total object. If the isometric view were actually projected from a view of the object in the tipped position, the lines in the isometric view would be foreshortened and would, therefore, not be seen in their true length. To simplify the drawing of an isometric view, the actual measurements of the object are used.
Although the object appears slightly larger without the allowance for shortening, the proportions are not affected. The three faces seen in the isometric view are the same faces that would be seen in the normal orthographic views: top, front, and side. Figure B illustrates the selection of the front comer A , the construction of the isometric axes, and the completed isometric view.
Note that all lines are drawn to their true length, measured along the isometric axes, and that hidden lines are usually omitted. Two techniques can be used for making an isometric drawing of an irregularly shaped object, as illustrated in Nonisometric lines Many objects have sloping surfaces that are represented by sloping lines in the orthographic views. In isometric drawing, sloping surfaces appear as nonisometric lines.
To create them, locate their endpoints, found on the ends of isometric lines, and join them with a straight line. Figures and p. Dimensioning Isometric Drawings At times, an isometric drawing of a simple object may serve as a working drawing. In such cases, the necessary dimensions and specifications are placed on the drawing. Dimension lines, extension lines, and the line being dimensioned are shown in the same plane. Unidirectional dimensioning is the preferred method of dimensioning isometric drawings.
The letters and numbers are vertical and read from the bottom of the sheet. An example of this type of dimensioning is shown in Fig.
Since the isometric is a one-view drawing, it is not usually possible to avoid placing dimensions on the view or across dimension lines. However, this practice should be avoided whenever possible. Isometric sketching, one of several types of pictorial drawing, is the most frequently used. With the use of isometric grid sheets and an isometric ellipse template, pictorial drawings can be sketched quickly and accurately.
Isometric Sketching The basic techniques for sketching were covered in Unit Isometric sketching paper has evenly spaced lines running in three directions. The third set of lines are vertical and pass through the intersection of the sloping lines see Fig. The most commonly used grids are the inch, which is further subdivided into smaller evenly spaced grids, and the centimeter, which is further subdivided into 10 equal grids of 1 mm.
No units of measure are shown on these sheets; therefore the spaces could represent any convenient unit of size. To save time and to make a more accurate and neaterlooking sketch, use an isometric ellipse template for drawing arcs and circles, and a straightedge for drawing long lines.
Block in the Overall Sizes for Each Detail. These subblocks or frames enclose each detail. They are drawn using very light thin lines. Step 2. Add the Details. Lightly sketch the shapes of the details in each of their frames. These details are drawn using light thin lines. For circles, which are covered in Unit , draw squares equal to the size of the diameter. Also sketch in lines to represent the center lines of the circle.
Step 3. Step 4. Darken the Lines. Using a soft lead pencil, first darken all the isometric lines. Next darken the nonisometric lines. Last, darken the arcs and circles. Build a Frame. The frame or box is the overall border size of the part to be drawn. It is drawn with light thin lines. See Assignments 1 through 6 for Unit on pages STEP 4. Practically all circles and arcs shown on manually prepared isometric drawings are made with the use of an isometric ellipse template.
A wide variety of elliptical templates are available. The template shown in Fig. Markings on the ellipses coincide with the center lines of the holes, speeding up the drawing of circles and arcs. Figure shows a part having the holes and arcs constructed with a template. Drawing Irregular Curves in Isometric To manually draw curves other than circles or arcs, the plotting method shown in Fig.
Draw an orthographic view, and divide the area enclosing the curved line into equal squares. Produce an equivalent area on the isometric drawing, showing the offset squares. Take positions relative to the squares from the orthographic view, and plot them on the corresponding squares on the isometric view. Draw a smooth curve through the established points with the aid of an irregular curve.
See Assignments 7 through 9 for Unit on pages Isometric drawings are usually made showing exterior views, but sometimes a sectional view is needed. The section is taken on an isometric plane, that is, on a plane parallel to one of the faces of the cube. Note the construction lines representing the part that has been cut away. Isometric half sections are illustrated in Fig.
In half sections, the section lines are sloped in opposite directions, as shown in Fig. However, when it is desirable to represent the part, normally a casting, as having a more realistic appearance, either of the methods shown in Fig.
Threads The conventional method for showing threads in isometric is shown in Fig. The threads are represented by a series of ellipses uniformly spaced along the center line of the thread.
The spacing of the ellipses need not be the spacing of the actual pitch. Break Lines For long parts, break lines should be used to shorten the length of the drawing.
Freehand breaks are preferred, as shown in Fig. Fig Conventional breaks in isometric. See Assignments 10 through 16 for Unit on pages The three axes of projection are vertical, horizontal, and re.
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Lines, lettering and scales Lesson 1. Manual drafting tools for Engineering Drawing Lesson 2. Types of scales. Lesson 3. Line and lettering Module 2. Projections Lesson 4. Dimensioning technique Lesson 5. Orthographic projections Module 3. Sectional views Lesson 6. Sectional view Lesson 7. Types of projections Module 4.
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WebEngineering Drawing and Design, 6th Edition - - Cengage For more than 25 years, students have relied on this trusted text for easy-to-read, comprehensive . WebEngineering drawing and design. by. Jensen, Cecil Howard, Publication date. Topics. Mechanical drawing, Engineering design. Publisher. New York: Gregg . WebFor more than 25 years, students have relied on ENGINEERING DRAWING AND DESIGN for easy-to-read, comprehensive drafting and design instruction that is ANSI and ASME .