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Aerostatic force a compressible gas into a pump. Porous Compensation pressure. The externally pressurized All externally pressurized bearings Orifice compensation is the most technology has at least two have some sort of compensation´┐Ża widely used form of compensation. Compensation enables the gas can be high. This step enables bearings or seal faces to run close Often, orifices are precisely cut from separating the seal faces before together without touching because rubies or sapphires to avoid erosion pumpsandsystems.
Another area of the orifice and any grooves are issue to remember is that at gaps below available to initiate lift. This is one of 0. In the case of externally pressurized porous bearings, the bearing will be in a balanced force mode when input pressure times the area equals the total load on the bearing.
This is an interesting tribological case as there is zero lift or air gap. There will be zero flow, but the hydrostatic force of the air pressure against the counter Image 4. A mechanical seal face of porous though the faces are still in contact. As require pounds of force to initiate motion. But, with an rotors spin faster and run out increases, it can be difficult to external pressure source of psi ported through the porous keep these devices in contact with the shaft, and it is often graphite to its face, there would be essentially zero force necessary to increase the spring pressure holding them required to initiate motion.
This is despite the fact that there is still 1, pounds of Unfortunately, especially in the case of high-speed closing force squeezing the two faces together and that the operation, this increase in contact force also results in more faces are in physical contact with each other. The same hybrid principle applied to mechanical seal faces Bearing Materials described above can also be applied here, where physical A class of plain bearing materials´┐Żsuch as graphite, carbons contact is required for electrical conductivity between the and ceramics such as alumina and silicon-carbides that are stationary and rotating parts.
These provide a hydraulic cylinder to reduce the friction at the dynamic noncontacting fluid fi lm bearings. He of the pump to deal with problem applications and higher may be reached at ddevitt newwayairbearings. For more speed operations while using mechanical seals. We offer solutions with no risk of particulate contamination due to frictionless and oil-free pumping modules.
Leak tightness Ensure long-term stability and reliability of your cryogenic gas supply and also avoid contamination of ultra-pure media by leak detection in combination with tailored pumping solutions.
Insulation vacuum Insulation vacuum tailored to your needs. Are you looking for a perfect vacuum solution? Please contact us: Pfeiffer Vacuum, Inc. Scores of relatively shallow offshore wells have been could set the stage for years to come and trigger a new wave capped, even though they still contain up to half of their contents. These new plays Images courtesy of Pulsafeeder venture into Jurassic-age sands, which some believe represent the final frontier of deep-water development.
This displaces oil residing deeper in the reservoir and focus on new priorities. This shift is like the trends in and drives it toward the well head, where it can be extracted. This requires a of maturing wells´┐Żwhich could create a renaissance for mix of gas, chemical and water or steam injections to move enhanced oil recovery EOR activities.
Thermal While new oil discoveries always grab headlines, EOR is much EOR activities send steam down the injection wells into like the understudy that plays a behind-the-scenes but vital the reservoir to transfer heat into cold and heavy oil, which role.
For most well sites, EOR activities recover up to half of reduces its viscosity and makes it more mobile. This adds up Nonthermal EOR activities pump a mix of different gasses to billions of barrels that have already been discovered yet carbon dioxide or hydrocarbon gas through the same are considered too difficult to recover or not worth the effort injection wells.
When gas mixes with trapped oil, it causes the when more attractive opportunities exist elsewhere. This injections, to help sweep oil toward the production zone.
To reach the hardest parts where much of the product remains , different polymers and active agents are required. These chemicals are metered in specific doses via metering pumps. Chemicals known as surfactants are pumped into the reservoir to lower the surface tension between oil and the rocks trapping the oil. These chemicals improve the wettability of porous rocks and allow water infused with other chemicals to flow through the rock to displace oil. Once dispersed, oil droplets still need to be extracted.
This is accomplished by metering different combinations of polymers, which thicken the water-flood injected into the reservoir. Certain polymers work like a squeegee on a windshield. Water injected into a reservoir displaces oil deep in the reservoir and drives it toward production zones for extraction. They push oil droplets together into larger bunches, which can then be swept toward production zones and extracted.
These factors have built up an enormous inventory of Much like traditional upstream oil and gas production, a half-full reservoirs. Many believe this growing inventory has wide variety of corrosion and scale inhibitors must be dosed created a new value proposition for EOR. Many early systems required on all EOR injection lines to prevent freezing. Hydrates form when light inaccurate and inconsistent dosing to the reservoir. They restrict flow and can damage equipment.
As a result, the chemistry Because remediation is time-consuming, expensive and required for maximum extraction is also unique to each dangerous to people, equipment and the environment, flow reservoir. Because the chemistry changes throughout the assurance chemicals like methanol, delivered via metering extraction life cycle, the metering pumps used to deliver the pumps, are critical to keep the entire enterprise operating.
Even though chemical injection and EOR can increase oil recovery by as much as 75 percent, these methods have long Metering Pump Criteria for EOR Applications been considered expensive, laborious and time-consuming.
Metering pump innovation has come a long way in the But that may be changing, in part to a shifting landscape and last decade. They offer more hydraulic power, interact with relatively shallow offshore wells have been capped by controllers to interpret data, provide 1, to 1 turndown operators, even though they still contain half of their ratios to deliver the precise volumes of chemical needed and contents.
Prior to the last downturn, the need for efficiency adhere to API standards. The recent gold rush in the Permian Basin When it comes to offshore operations, footprint, space and offers similar incentives for operators to focus on primary weight are important factors. Metering pumps can deliver the and secondary recovery before moving to the next project. Equipment is more powerful, energy efficient and cost effective.
Services and best practices are refined and more efficient. Prices seem to have stabilized in a manner that sustains OPEX, ensures profit and encourages an acceptable level of investment. These economics, combined lighter and smoother than any with the growing inventory of half-full conventional triplex design. Its five reservoirs, and enhancements made cylinders provide optimal pressure with in pumping technology, provide a minimal variance to deliver greater compelling value proposition for a new volume with lower operating loads.
Its Mr. Ellis Williams circa renaissance in EOR activities. For more information, visit pulsafeeder. Also, the first pump showed that the main contributors to experienced suction piping coating these two failures were a manufacturing failure, and the coating was lodged into error and operation well above the pump suction in Image 2. One failed shaft was also high outboard bearing radial vibration.
The pumps are and analyzed to identify the used to dispose of brine water produced potential causes of the vibration. The showed mainly 2X excitation. The pumps were for inspection, and the following Image 1 top to bottom. Kingsbury LEG built in and were commissioned conditions were found: thrust bearing.
Pipi Coating in Image thrust bearing temperature during collar location, as shown in Images 3a and b. Shaft cut location Images courtesy of Saudi Aramco commissioning, which was resolved 3a and 3b.
Thrust collar washer Image 9 left to right. Face runout readings collected on thrust collar. Image Shaft stub method seal was found to be overheated due aggravated by the high flow operation to high axial movement after the for the pump, which reached up to shaft was cut. Scanned striation found with minor rubbing marks. Image 4, was found with rubbing Mechanical seals were replaced, and marks.
In addition, it had uneven the machine was returned to service. This uneven thickness However, the pump tripped due to high caused the thrust collar not to set axial displacement. The shaft axial float square with the shaft and resulted was adjusted and the pump started, but in a cyclic loading on the shaft. The shaft key slot had an insert broken shaft to identify the failure that was added due to a manufacturing mode. The lab results showed that error. This insert was fi xed to the shaft material was Inconel Also, shaft by a screw to correct the keyway an initial fracture surface inspection Images 6 and 7.
This design mandated revealed a classical rotating bending a threaded hole in the shaft, which fatigue appearance with hints to low acted as a stress riser and caused the nominal stress and moderate stress initiation of the shaft crack.
Image 7 concentration conditions. Further shows a normal key slot for the other fracture surface examination using pumps that did not suffer from this scanning electron microscopy SEM manufacturing error i.
Fabricated The root cause of pump shaft a contributing factor. The thrust collar key slot with the securing screw showing shaft crack.
Image 7. Key slot breakage is believed to be rotating experienced minor rubbing marks removed and inspected. Crack shown bending fatigue as a result of uneven indicating rubbing with the thrust to be initiated at the screw location. Image 8. Normal key slot design of identical pump without key caused the thrust collar not to set Further inspections tested the slot insert.
The clearance was found to be 0. This high clearance contributed to the failure since it will not allow the thrust collar to set correctly and causes a rocking action, increasing the forces on the shaft.
The thrust collar was found with rubbing marks and a rubbed-out washer. Face runout measurements were taken on the thrust collar Image 8 , showing a high, uneven gap between the collar and bearing, which caused a cyclic bending load on the shaft, causing it to crack at the stress riser location in the keyway hole.
The root cause of the cracked shaft was the keyway insert screw hole, which acted as a stress riser and was aggravated by stress from the high clearance between the thrust collar and the shaft.
This was due to cyclic loading on the shaft. The locknut looseness also contributed. Corrective Actions Both shafts were repaired by a stubbing method. The national petroleum and natural gas company used old Inconel shafts from other pumps to make two small stub shafts.
The pump damaged shaft was cut, drilled and threaded to add a new stub shaft section. Once the new sections were in place, the shafts were welded together to form a new shaft. The new section was machined to tolerance to ensure proper fit and acceptable shaft runout Image The pump was put back into service with no issues.
Yousuf S. Al-Shuhail is a consultant engineer with 28 years of experience at We are your single source for engineering, manufacturing, packaging, Saudi Aramco.
Yasser M. Alshahrani is and complete parts and service. Raise your expectations and demand a rotating equipment engineer with four access to what matters ´┐Ż the serviceability, accessibility, and support years of experience at Saudi Aramco.
Alshahrani can be reached at yasser. Faisal A. Aldossary is a rotating equipment engineer with three years of experience at Saudi Aramco. For more information, visit pioneerpump. This means it features a gas- liquid-liquid formulation consisting of natural gas, water and the crude oil itself.
L ike snowflakes and human fingerprints, no two oil The specific ratios of the gas-liquid-liquid composition wells are exactly the same. Even though they may be that flows up the wellbore will affect its handling, transport, on adjacent plots of land, the characteristics of the storage and refining.
The most critical concern for the wells can be vastly different. Whereas one might have operator is the amount of gas present in the recovery stream. The differences do not end when the product reservoir is There are several noteworthy challenges created by the tapped.
Production companies have long known that oil from presence of entrained gas in the crude oil stream. The most different regions can have little in common. That can also be basic is that any amount of entrained gas can make accurate the case for wells in close proximity to each other, with the and reliable flow measurement difficult to achieve.
This can be especially harmful if the aware of the unique operating characteristics of each and cavitation takes place inside the pump, where the collapsing every well. Images courtesy of Blackmer the pump may experience a vapor-lock condition that will halt its operation. Patented Product One production area in the U. Specifically, Bakken crude is a three-phase liquid in that it is of How? It is a combination of this setup, the unpredictable volume of entrained gas in Circle on card.
However, because of their method of operation, gear pumps will begin to function unreliably if the vapor pressures vary too much, which will hamper the overall efficiency of the pipeline system. Specifically, gear pumps require the proper head pressure in order to produce a constant flow rate.
If the pressure varies too widely, vapor lock will take place. The Solution Faced with the shortcomings of gear pumps that are tasked with handling crude oil with a high volume of entrained gas, oilfield operators were on the lookout for a different type of pumping technology to handle the demands of frequent pressure variations. They found a reliable alternative in positive displacement PD sliding vane pump technology.
For nearly years, sliding vane pumps have been used in myriad oilfield-based liquid-transfer operations. Sliding vane pump design features a number of vanes that are able to slide into or out of slots in the pump rotor. When the pump driver turns the rotor, a combination of forces centrifugal, mechanical push rods and liquid causes the vanes to move outward in their slots and around the inner bore of GFO is a registered trademark of WL Gore and Assoc.
This forms internal pumping chambers and, as the rotor revolves, the fluid flows through the suction port and into the pumping chambers that are created by the vanes. The fluid is then transported around the pump casing until the discharge port is reached, at which point the fluid is pushed out Circle on card.
The design enables the sliding vane pump to deliver the operational characteristics that are necessary for effective high-volume transfer of crude oil that includes significant amounts of entrained gases. Those characteristics include vanes that self-adjust for wear in order to maintain volumetric www.
Moment Weighing Solutions Most sliding vane pump models are available in sizes that handle flow rates between 2 and 2, gallons per minute Balancing Tooling gpm.
Along with differing operational characteristics, oilfields can Balancing Service be in areas where harsh weather is a constant threat. Equipment Upgrades Conclusion Repairs The varying and unpredictable makeup of crude oil keeps Spare Parts oilfield operators constantly on their toes. When the produced crude contains significant levels of entrained gases, the demands put on the transfer system are ratcheted even higher.
Fortunately, sliding vane pumps possess a design and The Difference is Quality. In a growing number of cases, this makes sliding vane pumps a first-choice technology for operators who wish to optimize their returns while limiting equipment breakdowns.
He may be reached at or doug. For more information, visit blackmer. All PD pumps are volumetric fluid handling solutions that create flow and Determine which type´┐Żsingle-, twin- or three- are flexible to dynamic system pressures.
They are a widely screw´┐Żis best for your application. CIRCOR Here is a guide for determining whether single-, twin- or three-screw pumps are the most suitable for your oil and B uyers of new industrial equipment are returning to their gas application.
Screw pumps, first introduced by Jennifer Edwards is global marketing communications Archimedes around B. For more information, visit circorpt. Please go to pumpsandsystems. Nominations will be closed by p. ET, June During this time, seal Analysis, repair times usually took four to 10 weeks. Not only did the oil and gas company find keeping the pumps up and running difficult, but also because the pumps were critical to the process, the company grew concerned Condition about high profit losses from mounting lost production.
The Solution Monitoring On discovering the root cause of the problem, the oil and gas company relied on condition monitoring services while the defect elimination process took place. Condition data was provided by the mechanical seal company to anticipate failures and prioritize spares, including North Sea oil platform seals, analyzing vibration data to help plan and manage outages.
The oil and gas company proactively procured seal spares to pumps upgraded as part help shorten outage downtime.
In addition, a defect elimination process was implemented, including redesigning the pumps and seals systems. In addition, a distributed flush was included to maximize exposure of the W seat to the flushed product.
The company, which produces 28, barrels a day, had Current failure rates have dropped to only one failure in six to fi x problems caused by sand damage to six pumps used in years, or a month MTBR. The oil and gas company decided to defer the overhaul of In the past, solutions implemented by the oil and gas its pump from 24 months to approximately 72 months company took two years to execute.
So, the company looked because of the ongoing condition monitoring capabilities to a mechanical seals company and a pump engineering that are now in place. For more platform required repair for nine seals. This equated to a information, visit johncrane. Enjoy entertainment and networking events for an unforgettable Las Vegas experience.
Register today at www. Visit www. A carefully measured flow of fine wear from abrasion, corrosion, erosion and high powder is injected into the nozzle. The powder is heated temperatures. Operators are looking for technology that and accelerated by the products of combustion, usually will extend the life and improve the reliability of critical to temperatures close to or above its melting point and to components experiencing inner diameter wear.
The resultant coatings have a typical Protecting Critical Components coating thickness range from 0. Thermal spray is a line- of-sight process´┐Żin other words, it is used to apply various Developing Coatings for Small Inner Diameters coating powder feedstocks on most commonly external It is difficult to coat within the small diameter of internal surfaces with a close to nominal spray angle. Powder particles must be heated and industry, and one of the most common solutions is high accelerated over a small spray distance, in milliseconds, in velocity oxygen fuel HVOF.
HVOF uses an internal order to produce and adhere the dense, carbide coating on combustion system to generate a supersonic flame jet for the substrate. Either liquid or gaseous-based fuel is used in solutions have been developed, such as a solution that creates the HVOF process. Carefully metered oxygen and fuel are a dense coating on the surface of internal diameters in tight introduced into the combustion chamber where a spark spaces.
The internal diameters can be as small as 2. This total solutions approach uniquely internal surfaces in a confined space. The Mounting data confirms that minimum distance from the torch to the energy savings are realized when surface is approximately 1. As part of adapting to the shorter spray old pumps in aging plants are distance, finer powder must be used.
This replaced with high efficiency, latest allows the powder to be properly processed model pumps. At SNM our pump and result with a coating strongly adhered products and solutions address to the substrate.
Our confined space is heat. Special equipment hydraulic power recovery turbine must be used to ensure the substrate makes effective use of energy when Circle on card. To ensure the mechanical properties transporting high pressure liquids.
In this manner, the properties of the pumpsandsystems. Essential characteristics and properties for ID tungsten carbide-based coatings substrate are not affected by the heat, and there is no distortion Physical Value Test Method to the part.
Characteristics Special attention must also be paid to the design of Thickness 0. Below are some essential characteristics and properties for ID tungsten carbide-based coatings. Exact Metrology brings creative solutions to all types of scanning scenarios. Micro, macro or bulky workpieces, one-off testing, inline scans with instant cloud data access for part production verification, field scanning including drone, even equipment sales, when 3D laser and CT scanning need to be done in-house by your team.
Even then, you have access to our team of dedicated, experienced technicians who've likely encountered your "exact" challenge or something similar in the past. Use our know-how to get to first article faster and with more precision. Inline, we can help prevent wasted material and time, when machined, cast or molded parts aren't hitting the spec.
We solve problems Our name says it all We welcome your challenges! Exact opening there soon. Stay tuned! ASTM G65, a standard test method, shows tungsten carbide has significantly higher resistance to abrasion at 0. Other Coating Solutions In addition to carbide-based coatings, alloy materials have also been developed and applied. These alloy coatings include stainless steels and nickel- based alloys. These coatings can be applied on a variety of Image 3.
Coating applied on the inner diameter of a 4-inch tube substrate materials that are commonly used in the oil and gas industry. With environmental standards changing, Surface Technologies. For more information, coating providers have been tasked with developing visit praxairsurfacetechnologies. A cartridge-style dual mechanical seal with process pumps.
Mechanical seals began to replace bidirectional tapered pumping device. The sealing components must be good for the operating temperature, and a suitable flush liquid must be introduced for cooling the shaft favored for temperatures above F. Below F, pusher and its seals. However, using large amounts of flush liquid can seals seals that incorporate O-rings would be acceptable.
The flush liquid is a refined product, and after One such seal is depicted in the cross-section view of Image 1. In light-cycle oil redesigned to positively pump seal flush fluid into the pumps that use Plan 32, relatively large quantities of clean, process. When these being pumped. Due to widespread use of Plan 32 flush grooves fi ll with solids, they no longer function as intended. Unlike modern steam crackers ethylene plants , oil refineries can be cautious when Alternative Solutions it comes to applying new ideas.
As an experienced unremarkable´┐Żborderline´┐Żseal life, and the aside, maintaining seal face cleanliness is a mandatory search for an optimized flush application merged into a quest technical requirement for any industry segment and for better mechanical seals and sound flush plan alternatives.
Accordingly, experience A bit of research confirmed that metal bellows seals are checks are recommended. There are compelling reasons for having this multivendor access. The reasons have been widely published and solid arguments made for working with more than one seal manufacturer. This choice was supported by Plan 53 being successful in comparable services elsewhere. However, it was again noted NO Packing that for pumps operating with temperatures substantially above F, the heat load in a Plan 53 circuit may exceed comfortable limits and Plan 54 would be chosen instead.
If maintained properly, this is a reliable pressurized plan. As for the U. It and similar dual seals will work well in light hydrocarbon services with moderate temperatures. The seal design and piping plan must create the appropriate flow rate of barrier fluid to provide cooling for the seal faces. The flow must be distributed to cool both the inner and outer seal face pairs. Image 1 shows such designs. A small and generally negligible amount of barrier fluid may still enter the pump and minimally dilute the product or process.
The seal faces in Image 1 are well-cooled because the seal T Pump incorporates a high-flow bidirectional pumping ring and a Featuring a seal-less design baffle that directs fluid to circulate around´┐Żand thus cool´┐Ż and robust construction, the inboard faces.
A heat exchanger is sometimes used in the the new Hydra-Cell T flush liquid loop, although the large diameter tapered pumping provides reliable, low- device, or an auger-like pumping screw, typically move the maintenance performance barrier fluid at flow rates greater than those achievable with because it has no packing or traditional configurations.
Bidirectional designs generate head mechanical seals that leak or wear. With flow rates up to 95 gpm and a maximum Will the Best Seal Fit? However, several vendors offer dual mechanical seals that Request More Info or a Quick Quote could fit in the spatial envelope available in s or s pumps without reconfiguration of equipment.
It should also be noted that many slurry pumps had their stuffing boxes modified decades ago after it was realized that www. Tapered given below. While these suggestions are specific to the stuffing boxes do not incorporate throat bushings. These refinery, other users may find them useful. Tapered bores can usually accommodate 1 Establish formal communication with several seal manufacturing companies. Recommendations The following recommendations for mechanical seals in 3 Provide API data sheet s to each of the four potential manufacturers or vendors.
FCC units are based on advice given to the oil refinery mentioned earlier in this case study and reflect considerable 4 Request experience data whereby each manufacturer discloses proposed seal type and estimated or known average life attained. Trial and error solutions were attempted and the FCC pumps in question predated Among several other possible flaws, the owners had possibly overlooked that the 5 Make No.
Accordingly, request feedback from the vendor who floated the idea of gas- troublesome pumps may have been sold with braided packing. This stabilizing effect may have been lost when packing lost its place to mechanical seals.
Because of this, suitable 6 Request comments on any sealing system design elements e. If warranted, involve seal manufacturers in your Following these recommendations will rarely disappoint overall pump upgrade strategies or plans. In case a seal the reliability-focused seal purchaser. Bloch, Heinz P. Bloch, H. Heinz P. Note that some pumping a Master of Science cum laude in mechanical engineering.
Image 1. M ore than 5 million wells worldwide employ artificial lift systems. In North America, it is estimated that 90 percent of wells use artificial lift processes.
Typically the technologies applied are pumped wells with rod or beam Image 2 left. Twin screw multiphase pump. Image 3 right. Pumping gas and liquids pumps and electrical submersible pumps ESPs , or hydraulic and gas lift systems. It is often necessary to install artificial lift systems in early production depending on the producing formation pump inlet pressure, which allows the gathering pressure to and expected reduction of the natural reservoir pressure.
The pumps where each pumping chamber forms when the two wellbore architecture is also complicated with deeper wells, meshing screws rotate to transport a fi xed volume from deviated and long horizontal legs and multi-well entries. As shown in Image 2, the pump has two Operators also strive for simplified gathering systems opposing sets of screw profi les moving the flow from suction and pad production with minimum infrastructure, facility at opposite ends of the screws toward discharge.
The liquid footprint and observing increasingly stringent emission and part of the multiphase flow is necessary to compress gas. As health, safety and environment HSE standards. More operators are of the screw profi le, in the annulus of the liner and the screw looking at supplementing artificial lift with a multiphase tips, and in the root of the profi le.
This As the flow reaches the discharge, the liquid phase is article will focus on the twin screw pump, which is a common more defined, and a solid liquid slipstream will travel in the pump design used for multiphase oil and gas transport and opposing direction of the main stream in the annulus formed boosting.
It is suited as a complement to a downhole pump between by the screws and the liner. This slipstream is a or gas lift as it can handle a wide range of viscosities and gas result of the backpressure buildup in downstream flow lines volume fraction GVF. The pressure boost is independent of and separators. The backfi ll continues in the results in steady plateau production and economics.
The deeper submergence of other upstream chambers, and as the more reliable predictions and control. Equilibrium between gas and liquid pressure is reached, and the combined liquid-gas mixture will flow through the discharge port and continue downstream. As shown in Image 3, the pressure buildup with solid liquid is linear from chamber to chamber´┐Żhowever with gas it is asymptotic. Most of the gas shown as blue compression takes place in the last chamber just before discharge.
Unlike compressors, it can pump percent liquids at any time. At high GVF 98 to 99 percent , the integrity of the liquid phase is no longer stable. To keep liquid at a minimum technology.
Its unique, unitized This system will allow the pump to operate at percent GVF at skid inlet rotor design accommodates axial movement. April 16 - 18 Cleveland, OH By lowering the gathering pressure, there is less backpressure on manifolds, wellheads and downhole pumps.
It also Circle on card. Damage from pounding can be avoided with the controlled constant backpressure created by the multiphase pump. The fewer well interventions and longer periods between service and overhaul of components reduce operating costs and costs from work over rigs. With gas-lifted wells, the risk of liquid loading and unstable tubing flow are reduced with the controlled low backpressure.
There are many advantages to using Image 4. Piping and instrumentation diagram with liquid recirculations system artificial lift with surface installed multiphase pumps. The pumps Operators keyed on maximizing production from existing operate at or above the bubble point, which improves gas facilities have installed multiphase pumps with good results.
Olson holds a degree in process oil ratio GOR formations. The lower backpressure on the engineering and an MBA from the University of Lund in well reduces power draw and electric motor load and reduces Sweden. For more information, visit leistritzcorp. There are risks, potential issues put in parallel operation. This is not the case since pumps in and problems for parallel pump operation. Many pumps parallel operation take suction from a common source and have been damaged because of poor combination, wrong discharge into a common header.
Another reason is that the selection or carelessness. However, general knowledge on pumps that interact with each other would be neglected. This pump parallel operation is low, and there has been limited is a major shortfall in pump engineering. Different pumps present different behaviors when in Unfortunately, many engineers seem to think pumps are parallel operation.
Example of two parallel pumps Images courtesy of the author pumpsandsystems. For instance, when incorrectly selected pumps are operated in parallel, one of the pumps can be driven to operate outside of allowable operating range far from BEP , even near shut-off point. This can result in over-heating and damage to the pump. Parallel operation of identical pumps is a better-known topic than for dissimilar pumps.
There are some well-established rules for identical pumps. For identical pumps, performance curves should be matched within specified tolerances, usually with tolerances less than 2 percent.
In other words, although pumps are theoretically identical´┐Żbecause of different manufacturing and tolerances´┐Ż in reality their curves are slightly different and should be limited to 2 percent. This is required to avoid problems. Parallel pumps during the installation phase to operate in parallel. The head should be matched at the rated point of each are more affected by operation far from best efficiency pump´┐Żnot at the same volumetric flow rate points.
The point BEP , can be more affected. The effects of parallel parallel operation of dissimilar pumps is most often seen in operation on efficiency, reliability and performance should renovation or expansion projects.
For a revamp or renovation be carefully considered. In other situations, they The surrounding area of rated points should offer a suitable are installed for standby requirements or emergency backup. As an indication, curves of In other cases, for instance with an expansion or renovation different pumps in the expected area of operation should be program, a few new pumps are added to an existing set to matched within 3 to 4 percent.
When dissimilar pumps are increase the system capacity. In such a case, dissimilar pumps operated in parallel, care must be taken to avoid a situation could be operated in parallel, which is a complicated matter. However, this is just theory. There are compared between the minimum continuous flow and the end many practical concerns, risks, factors and parameters that of the curve. The manufacturer should supply a study report should be considered.
The report should be If the pumps are not properly selected for parallel operation carefully reviewed to ensure reliable parallel operation. Inefficient operation, some aspects of it´┐Żand all possible combinations´┐Żare often pump reliability issues, pump damage and operational not understood even to pump experts and consultants. If the electric motor is undersized, be carefully considered when selecting pumps for parallel this trip can be activated by transient operation at the right operation.
If the pump curve droops the head drops as the side of the curve. This is particularly important for the flow is reduced toward the shut-off point, a second pump transient cases in parallel operation. In other operate at the far right side of rated point or even close to the words, these pumps work against the same discharge head for end of the curve for a short time.
The electric motors should a curve with more than one flow condition for a given head; be sized accordingly, and the current set point should be set so, a pump can be stuck near shut-off and could fail over time. As a general rule, the performance curve should continuously rise to the shut-off point.
Read more on this topic at Pumps with head-capacity curves that droop toward the pumpsandsystems. Electric motors of all pumps should be sized for SPE, IEEE, and IDGTE and has written more the operation at the end of the curve to allow all pumps to than 80 papers and articles dealing with continue operation at the far right of the rated point for a rotating machines.
Almasi can be reached at short time, without tripping on motor current limit. A PI is a comprehensive standard issued by construction, manufacture and testing of the product the American Petroleum Institute API that before shipment.
Some of the terms covered include is intended to provide a purchase specification acceleration pressure, linearity, steady state accuracy and covering controlled volume, positive displacement turndown ratio, which are all critical to metering PD pumps for petroleum, chemical and gas industry pump performance. General´┐ŻThis section covers unit responsibility the services. The standard covers hydraulically actuated and packed plunger metering pumps.
It provides a framework for the manufacturer and purchaser to agree on the design, 4 pump vendor is responsible for all sub-suppliers used. It also covers governing requirements and units of measure fabrication and testing of a metering pump product.
The U. Statutory Requirements´┐ŻDetermination of and is not a substitute or alternative to the API standard itself. The buyer is responsible for details to the equipment, its packaging or any preservation procedures employed.
Basic Design´┐ŻThis section gives detailed requirements marked by a bullet at the beginning of a paragraph. Included are API specifications, valves, diaphragms, plungers, relief valve applications, drive-train enclosures, bearings lubrication and capacity adjustment.
Also covered in detail are materials of American Gear Manufacturers Association specifications construction, including low temperature service, and AGMA , American Society of Mechanical Engineers nameplates and rotation arrows.
A table listing material and equipment furnished. These data inspection standards is included. NPIP : Suction conditions points and lifting lugs, to name a few. Categories covered are: metering pump. This section contains technical data and test results such as two different analysis approaches and performance curves, NPIP testing, as discussion of mitigation techniques. It clearly well as considerations for drawings defines the scope and responsibilities and technical data, progress reports, of the concerned parties and how they parts lists and recommended spares, should be communicated.
Rick Ray is the global product manager Circle on card. To save energy, the team also installed a station in Onondaga County, taking in about 8 mgd of sewage level transducer to monitor tank levels. Falter Construction and the Water it to a nearby wastewater treatment plant. The expansion and Environment Protection Department needed access to system upgrades would add more sewer capacity to reduce sewage operations when staff was not on-site.
To ensure the bypass overflows into Lake Onondaga during heavy rains, and system ran smoothly during the project, a control panel with expand its capacity and increase efficiency.
Falter Construction to oversee the bypass project. The continually monitor the pumps from any location via a smart contractor and pump supplier set out to design and install a device. The option to rent the pumps and equipment rather temporary system to convey the full amount of flow within than purchase them was an economic benefit for Onondaga the same footprint as the original pumps.
Additionally, providing substantial cost savings. In addition to the two electric had access to engineers, product experts and service submersible pumps, the temporary bypass system at the West technicians to ensure operations continued uninterrupted.
We can watch the equipment and do troubleshooting as needed without Model SN having to be on-site. For more information, visit xylem. Modern screw vacuum pumps include a variable pitch Solutions screw, which results in compression of process gas across the entire length of the screw. Screw vacuum pumps use a cooling jacket, which ensures an even temperature distribution, and provides greater thermal efficiency and stability throughout the pump body.
Pharmaceutical Generally, dry screw vacuum pumps operate at temperatures warm enough to prevent condensation of the process gas, preventing corrosion due to process liquids Applications attacking the pump, but cool enough to prevent potential issues such as vapor decomposition or autoignition. Since there is no seal fluid in the pumping chamber, the process vapors exit the pump without contamination, allowing the condensation of the process vapors to be recycle or used Know the advantages and downstream, should the financial returns prove worthwhile.
Ductile iron is the standard material used for process- disadvantages for this technology. The metal is given with a Teflon-impregnated special coating to make it resistant to nearly all chemicals. Some examples include steam jet with a cleaning fluid to avoid deposits of process material ejector systems using the Venturi effect to forming as the pump cools.
Dry screw vacuum pumps are also draw a vacuum, liquid-ring vacuum pumps using water as a amenable to the use of variable speed drives VSDs to control sealant and rotary vane vacuum pumps using a once-through the operating pressure and to match the pumping speed to sealing system. Each of these technologies continues to have the required process flow. VSDs provide the added benefit of a place in chemical and pharmaceutical applications, but optimizing the energy usage of the vacuum pump.
In a screw vacuum pump, two interlocking screw-shaped rotors rotate in opposite directions. With almost all compression occurring at this location, Dry screw vacuum pumps should not be confused with oil- the heat of compression is concentrated, causing high gas lubricated screw vacuum pumps. These issues include contamination of the process vapors with the sealant, contamination of the sealant with process material due to condensation, absorption, reaction, etc. Since dry screw vacuum pumps do not use any sealant in the pumping chamber, they should not experience these issues.
Summary The choice of vacuum technology has Circle on card. Stories and insights from As a result, the market has been driven to seek vacuum technologies that will End users provide high efficiency while minimizing Engineers waste streams. Dry screw vacuum pumps can be a Maintenance professionals good choice in that they can provide Industry executives high efficiency while reducing additional waste streams through the elimination p o d c a st of operating fluids, whether they be steam, water or oil.
For You can also find all available episodes at to subscribe! The C Properly latched or secured doors, covers and so on do events. Image courtesy of Eaton not open. No fragmentation of the enclosure occurs within the time Passive Protection specified for the test. Since the introduction of arc-resistant electrical equipment, 3.
That arcing does not cause holes in the freely accessible the design paradigm has been to create a method of front, sides and rear of the enclosure Type 2. No indicators ignite as a result of escaping gases it away from the operator. These methods typically include cotton indicators are placed 4 inches from the sides heavily reinforcing the electrical equipment enclosure using of the equipment being tested to simulate cotton clothing thicker-gauge steel, reinforced hinges and multipoint door worn by an operator.
All the grounding connections remain effective. Such designs benefit from simplicity The efficacy of arc-resistant and acquisition costs. These passive arc- designs hinge on operation and resistant designs require no electronics maintenance personnel following or electrical power to function.
Minimal relevant administrative controls at technological advancements were all times. The safety afforded by arc- required to develop these designs. The incremental redirect the energy during an arc flash costs of such arc-resistant equipment event. Arc-resistant equipment, by remain relatively low, requiring only the itself, does not reduce incident energy addition of more steel and more durable under any circumstances. If doors are hardware to the existing design.
First and foremost, arc- contain and redirect the energy. Small remains completely intact at all times arc flash events may damage individual while the equipment is energized. And if components inside the equipment, while maintenance activities require opening catastrophic arc flash events can destroy doors or removing circuit breakers while the equipment entirely, requiring a the equipment is energized, personnel complete replacement.
These methods costs when compared to standard include zone selective interlocking, equipment. Arc-resistant equipment bus differential relays, arc detection often requires that electrical rooms relays and energy reducing maintenance be constructed with higher ceilings to switches. However, none of these provide clearance above the gear either technologies are able to reduce the for direct venting into the space or incident energy enough to provide the for the plenums.
Installing the ducts equivalent level of protection provided through walls to redirect the arc gasses by passive arc-resistant equipment. This out of the space adds more cost, as does is primarily because these technologies fencing off or otherwise restricting rely on tripping the main device in order Circle on card.
In the case of low-voltage switchgear, And, there are some industries that the main device is a large power circuit cannot tolerate venting arc gasses breaker, which can take up to four cycles into the environment.
Hazardous or 67 milliseconds ms to clear a fault. In order to reduce the incident energy Therefore, it is incumbent upon the further, a faster-acting device must be used. Systems that apply a bolted fault to reduce incident energy operations and maintenance personnel of low-voltage switchgear have been around for many to ensure that the equipment enclosure years.
However, as of this writing, none of these systems have been tested to the C In addition, applying a bolted fault to electrical equipment causes the equipment to draw the peak available fault current.
During an arc flash event, the peak of the pressure wave Current-Limiting Arc-Quenching Systems precedes the expulsion of arc gases and molten copper. Arc Considering all of these technologies, a gap exists for systems quenching systems that react fast enough to cut off the than can mitigate an arcing fault fast enough to reduce the peak of the pressure wave will also drastically reduce or incident energy level sufficiently to provide equivalent arc- nearly eliminate the amount of arc gases and molten copper resistant protection while not putting unnecessary stress on produced, thereby satisfying the remaining C This gap is being fi lled by If the arc-quenching system is able to reduce the incident technology that can be generally called current-limiting arc- energy far enough, it is possible to exceed the C Passive arc-resistant equipment, for which the Typically, arc-quenching systems use a combination of C Upon arc detection, these enclosure panels are in place.
But depending on the quenching signals are sent to a device that acts to transfer the arc to a time of the arc-quenching system, it may be possible for these contained location. This results in the equipment being able the most advanced arc-quenching systems create an arcing to meet or exceed the rigorous C The benefit of creating guide.
In addition, with reduced arc flash risk, this may an arcing fault is that it is higher impedance than a bolted permit modifications to personal protective equipment PPE fault. It draws less fault current and, in some cases, greater requirements and the reduction of the arc flash boundary. The Depending on the design of the arc-quenching system, result is greatly reduced stress. Sometimes this is greater than the system may also not require any venting into the 44 percent less stress on cable terminations, bus bracing and environment.
In that case, no ducts or plenums are necessary the secondary windings of the upstream transformer. Such and the required clearance above the equipment can be systems are called current limiting arc-quenching systems.
Testing revealed that the Class I, Division 2 environments where venting arc gases into pressure wave from an arc flash event in low-voltage metal hazardous locations is not permissible.
With over half a century of field-proven from arc flash events. Consequently, reliability, the surest way to maintain production is to specify Cat Pumps. Whatever your specs and application, Cat Pumps has the right pump. This may make these systems ideally Take the next step to more dependable pumps today. Nevertheless, arc-quenching systems have some drawbacks.
Since they are electronic systems that contain components such as relays, optical sensors, quenching device s and all of the associated interconnect wiring, they must be periodically tested and maintained to ensure proper functionality. The inclusion of these additional devices can also increase the footprint of the equipment. Conclusion The emphasis on improving safety, protecting expensive electrical equipment from arc flash damage and reducing the downtime of critical processes continues to increase in nearly every industry.
Capital budgets are strained and insurance premiums continue to rise. In response to these pressures, electrical manufacturers are developing innovative solutions. Current-limiting arc-quenching systems are one of the promising new technologies that address these concerns and changing priorities with a new approach.
He can be reached at or adamsdbaker eaton. For more information, visit eaton. Coriolis Flow Meter 2 Flow V Closed with Totalizer Positive displacement PD pumps, flow meters, Direction proportional-integral-derivative PID controllers and Ingredient 2 Pump other mechanical inline mixing devices all play a part in automating food and beverage processes. These devices are Ingredient Tank 3 V De-energized what makes large batches of any food or beverage product C Coriolis not only possible, but also consistent.
For the sake of easy math, here are smaller Pump numbers to illustrate the point. There are pounds of product for the iced tea. Tanks of ingredient lines are being totalized Image The blending system being used is designed to produce courtesy of the author pounds of product per hour. The time it will take to make pounds of tea needs to be known, so divide pounds of made, and if the amount of ingredients being blended per ingredients by pounds per hour rate and it will take 4.
Understanding how much product is being added per To calculate the set point of each ingredient multiplier used second will help problem-solve if anything happens to the in an automated blending system, first determine the set process flow during the blending run. The amount of ingredients being added per second could be process to determine this is as follows: catastrophic if something unexpected happens or if the machine malfunctions during the blending process.
This down further to determine how much is process is called closed loop control. These numbers All of these calculations are critical need to be divided by 60 to determine to maintain product integrity and to product total per minute. Additionally, allow the recipe to be replicated. By that number needs to be divided by using pumps and systems to control the another 60 to determine how much recipe, the following will be produced: product will be used each second.
This is critical second. This it can speed up the process. Detailed Price since method can be replicated. Make sure maintaining the product quality. For TM be done. Each bulk tank of ingredient lines up to an isolation valve, which more information, visit PUMP, Inc wernerelectric.
Laser alignment systems are used to determine the extent of shaft Image 2 left. Angular misalignment. Image 3 center. Parallel misalignment. Image 4 right. Many laser alignment and a taper gauge or a set of feeler gauges, provided all measurements for angular systems are available, and the procedure or by use of dial indicators.
They are capable of is made by inserting the taper gauge or angular alignment, change the indicator aligning couplings with and without feelers between the coupling faces at 90 so it bears against the face of the same spacers and are most commonly used degree intervals see Image 2.
Checks coupling half and proceed as described for precision alignments. Image 1 shows for angular and parallel alignment by for parallel alignment. A rough check for such as correcting for indicator sag or adjustment requirements to align parallel alignment is made by placing a compensating for cold aligning a hot the shafts.
Please reference industry In the absence of a laser alignment at the top, bottom and at both sides standards and the pump and coupling system, users can check the alignment see Image 3. The necessary fasten the indicator to the pump half of For more information about coupling tools used for checking the alignment the coupling, with the indicator button alignment for rotodynamic pumps, resting on the other half coupling including additional considerations, see periphery see Image 4.
Rotate Describing Installation, Operation, and both shafts by the same amount, i. The dial What is meant by the readings will indicate whether the driver temperature class for my has to be raised, lowered or moved to pumps that are rated for either side. After each adjustment, recheck both parallel and angular alignments.
NOTE Normally the rated operating point is the specified operating point with the highest flow. NOTE Rated speed may not be the normal operating speed since the normal operating speed is determined by the normal operating point. NOTE Remote typically implies location in a local equipment or control room. Slip depends on the internal clearances, the differential pressure, the characteristics of the fluid handled, and in some cases, the speed. Steady state accuracy applies over the turndown ratio.
On some pumps hydraulic by-pass this is the effective stroke length. NOTE The supplier may be the manufacturer of the equipment or the manufacturers agent and is normally responsible for service support. It includes responsibility for reviewing such factors as the power requirements, speed, rotation, general arrangements, couplings, noise, lubrication, material test reports, instrumentation, piping, and testing of components.
NOTE Volumetric efficiency is normally expressed as a percentage. The pump Vendor who has unit responsibility shall ensure that all sub-Vendors comply with the requirements of this standard and all reference documents. These include, as a minimum, such factors as the functionality, power requirements, speed, rotation, general arrangement, couplings, dynamics, noise, lubrication, sealing system, material test reports, instrumentation, piping, documentation, conformance to specifications, and testing of components by supplier and any and all sub- suppliers.
Customary USC units. Use of an ISO Standards datasheet e. Annex A indicates SI units shall be used. Use of a U. Customary datasheet e. Annex A indicates U. Customary units shall be used. Figure 2 shows pumps with typical drive ends. At the time of the order, the order shall govern. NOTE 1 It is realized that there are some services where this objective is easily attainable and others where it is difficult.
NOTE 2 Auxiliary system design and design of the process in which the equipment is installed are very important in meeting this objective. Anticipated process variations that may affect this equipment such as changes in pressure, temperature, or properties of fluids handled, and special plant startup conditions shall be specified by the Purchaser.
The equipment provided by the Vendor shall conform to the maximum allowable sound pressure level specified. If requested by the Purchaser, the Vendor shall provide data confirming compliance to the maximum sound pressure level specified. Vendor shall advise Purchaser of increased power operating requirements necessary to achieve this.
The arrangement shall provide adequate clearance areas and safe access for operation and maintenance. If removable spool pieces are required in the Purchasers piping to accomplish this, the Vendor shall so state in the proposal. The environmental conditions shall include whether the installation is indoors heated or unheated or outdoors with or without a roof , maximum and minimum temperatures, unusual humidity, dusty, or corrosive conditions.
NOTE It should be recognized that this accuracy generally cannot be guaranteed below 10 percent of rated flow. To prevent leakage in these parts, metal equal in thickness to at least half the nominal bolt diameter including the allowance for corrosion shall be left around and below the bottom of drilled and threaded holes. The depth of the threaded holes shall be at least 1. Studs and nuts shall be furnished, installed, and the first 1.
NOTE Threads are removed at the end of the stud to allow the stud to bottom without damaging the end threads in the hole. Threads are removed from both ends of the stud to allow either end of the stud to be inserted into the threaded hole.
If the available area is inadequate, the grade symbol may be marked on one end and the manufacturers identification symbol marked on the other end. Studs shall be marked on the exposed end.
NOTE A set-screw is a headless screw with an internal hexagonal opening in one end. If jackscrews are used as a means of parting contacting faces, one of the faces shall be relieved counter-bored or recessed to prevent a leaking joint or an improper fit caused by marring of the face. All welding of connections shall be done before hydrostatic testing see 8. These threaded connections shall be installed as specified in 6. Tapered, threaded plugs shall be long shank solid round head, or long-shank hexagon head bar stock plugs in accordance with ASME B If cylindrical threads are specified, plugs shall be solid hexagon head plugs in accordance with DIN These plugs shall meet the material requirements of the casing.
A lubricant that is suitable for the contained fluid and for the service temperature shall be used on all threaded connections. Thread tape shall not be used. Plastic plugs shall not be used.
Nonstandard oversized flanges shall be identified as such and completely dimensioned on the arrangement drawing.
If oversized flanges require studs or bolts of non-standard length, this requirement shall be identified as such on the arrangement drawing. Diaphragm materials shall be compatible with the fluids they contact at all specified temperatures. They shall be designed to withstand maximum flexing regardless of stroke-length setting and shall be of sufficient thickness and density to prevent permeation.
The intermediate fluid or other material shall be compatible with both the process fluid and the hydraulic fluid. A lantern ring shall be provided in the stuffing box for flushing or adding lubricant to the packing. When a packing lubricant is used, the bottom hole shall have a threaded plug installed. NOTE The Purchaser and the Vendor should review any potential leakage collection system to ensure that all applicable environmental regulations are met.
The relief valve shall be self-seating and shall be easily accessible for adjustment, repair, or replacement. They shall be designed with AGMA criteria as a guide and with a minimum service factor of 1. The gear lubrication system shall be self-contained. Dynamic seals shall be easily replaceable. A proper locking device should be used to prevent loosening of any bearings. Single or double-row bearings shall not be of the Conrad type no filling slots.
Manual control shall include a locking device to positively retain the capacity setting. All adjustment means and indicators shall be easily accessible with the pump installed. NOTE See 8. Materials shall be identified by reference to applicable international standards, including the material grade. If no such designation is available, the Vendor's material specification, giving physical properties, chemical composition, and test requirements shall be included in the proposal.
Nickel-copper alloys NW or UNS N , bearing Babbitt, and copper-containing precipitation-hardened stainless steels are excluded from this restriction. WarningCertain corrosive fluids in contact with copper alloys have been known to form explosive compounds.
Such tests and inspections shall be listed in the proposal. NOTE The Purchaser may specify additional optional tests and inspections, especially for materials used for critical components or in critical services. NOTE Typical agents of concern are hydrogen sulfide, amines, chlorides, bromides, iodides, cyanides, fluorides, naphthenic acid, and polythionic acid.
Other agents affecting elastomer selection include ketones, ethylene oxide, sodium hydroxide, methanol, benzene and solvents.
NOTE Overlays or hard surfaces that contain more than 0. NOTE The torque loading values to achieve the necessary preload are likely to vary considerably depending upon whether or not an anti-seizure compound is used. NOTE In many applications, small amounts of wet H2S are sufficient to require materials resistant to sulfide stress-corrosion cracking. If there are trace quantities of wet H2S known to be present, or if there is any uncertainty about the amount of wet H2S that may be present, the Purchaser should consider specifying that reduced hardness materials are required.
Components that are fabricated by welding shall be postweld heat treated, if required, so that both the welds and heat-affected zones meet the yield strength and hardness requirements.
Exceptions to this requirement may be: a the surface of hardened piston rods or plungers in the packing area; and b the valve components where greater hardness has proven necessary. If such conditions cannot be avoided, the Purchaser and the Vendor shall agree on the material selection and any other precautions necessary. NOTE If dissimilar materials with significantly different electrical potentials are placed in contact in the presence of an electrolytic solution, galvanic couples may be created that can result in serious corrosion of the less noble material.
Only fully killed or normalized steels made to fine grain practice shall be used. NOTE For impact requirements refer to 6. O-rings shall be selected and their application limited in accordance with API O-ring materials shall be compatible with all specified services. Special consideration shall be given to the selection of O-rings for high- pressure services to ensure that they will not be damaged upon rapid depressurization explosive decompression.
It shall be specified on the datasheet if the service is such that there is a risk of rapid depressurization. NOTE Susceptibility to explosive decompression depends on the gas to which the O-ring is exposed, the compounding of the elastomer, temperature of exposure, the rate of decompression, and the number of cycles. Mold-parting fins and the remains of gates and risers shall be chipped, filed or ground flush. If chaplets are necessary, they shall be clean and corrosion free plating is permitted and of a composition compatible with the casting.
Weld repairs shall be inspected according to the same quality standard used to inspect the casting. The Purchaser shall specify if approval is required before proceeding with repair.
Repairs made at the foundry level shall be controlled by the casting material specification producing specification. The holes drilled for plugs shall be carefully examined, using liquid penetrant, to ensure that all defective material has been removed. The production of the castings shall also conform to the conditions specified below. These specimens shall have a minimum impact value of 14 joules 10 ft-lbs at room temperature.
The arrangement shall provide adequate clearance areas and safe access for operation and maintenance. The environmental conditions shall include whether the installation is indoors heated or unheated or outdoors with or without a roof , maximum and minimum temperatures, unusual humidity, dusty, or corrosive conditions. NOTE It should be recognized that this accuracy generally cannot be guaranteed below 10 percent of rated flow.
Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. API RP pdf free download ´┐Ż. Is the API clause 6. The reference should be to ISO Grade 4. All computer voices installed on your system are available to Balabolka. The first edition of this novel was published in November 15th , and was written by Cassandra Clare.
The book was published in multiple languages including English language, consists of pages and is available in Hardcover format. The JMF 2. Skip to content Home Broken Hill Api pdf free download. About The Author jack.
WebAug 15, ´┐Ż´┐Ż Api 11th edition - [PDF Document] Log in Upload File Most Popular Study Business Design Technology Travel Explore all categories api 11th edition . WebAPI US Click the start the download DOWNLOAD PDF Report this file Description Download API US Free in pdf format. Account Login Register Search . WebApi October PDF Bookmark Download This document was uploaded by user and they confirmed that they have the permission to share it. If you are author or own the .