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One study found a benefit to knowledge revision if corrective evidence was endorsed by many others on social media, thus giving the impression of normative backing Fifth, the language used in a correction is important. Simple language and informative graphics can facilitate knowledge revision, especially if fact comprehension might be otherwise difficult or if the person receiving the correction has a strong tendency to counterargue , , , When speaking directly to misinformed individuals, empathic communication should be used rather than wielding expertise to argue directives , Finally, it has been suggested that worldview-threatening corrections can be made more palatable by concurrently providing an identity affirmation , , However, evidence for the utility of identity affirmations in the context of misinformation corrections is mixed , so firm recommendations cannot yet be made.
In sum, debunking is a valuable tool to address specific pieces of misinformation and largely reduces misinformation belief. Furthermore, even well-designed debunking interventions might not have long-lasting effects, thus requiring repeated intervention. Misinformation corrections might be especially important in social media contexts because they can reduce false beliefs not just in the target of the correction but among everyone that sees the correction ï¿½ a process termed observational correction Best practices for corrections on social media echo many best practices offline , but also include linking to expert sources and correcting quickly and early There is emerging evidence that online corrections can work both pre-emptively and reactively, although this might depend on the type of correction Notably, social media corrections are more effective when they are specific to an individual piece of content rather than a generalized warning Social media corrections are effective when they come from algorithmic sources , from expert organizations such as a government health agency , , or from multiple other users on social media However, particular care must be taken to avoid ostracizing people when correcting them online.
In sum, social media users should be aware that corrections can be effective in this arena and have the potential to reduce false beliefs in people they are connected with as well as bystanders. By contrast, confronting strangers is less likely to be effective. Given the effectiveness of algorithmic corrections, social media companies and regulators should promote implementation and evaluation of technical solutions to misinformation on social media.
Even if optimal prebunking or debunking interventions are deployed, no intervention can be fully effective or reach everyone with the false belief. The contemporary information landscape brings particular challenges: the internet and social media have enabled an exponential increase in misinformation spread and targeting to precise audiences 14 , 16 , , Against this backdrop, the psychological factors discussed in this Review have implications for practitioners in various fields ï¿½ journalists, legislators, public health officials and healthcare workers ï¿½ as well as information consumers.
Combatting misinformation involves a range of decisions regarding the optimal approach Fig. When preparing to counter misinformation, it is important to identify likely sources. Although social media is an important misinformation vector , traditional news organizations can promote misinformation via opinion pieces , sponsored content or uncritical repetition of politician statements Practitioners must anticipate the misinformation themes and ensure suitable fact-based alternative accounts are available for either prebunking or a quick debunking response.
Organizations such as the International Fact-Checking Network or the World Health Organization often form coalitions in the pursuit of this endeavour Different strategies for countering misinformation are available to practitioners at different time points. If no misinformation is circulating but there is potential for it to emerge in the future, practitioners can consider possible misinformation sources and anticipate misinformation themes.
Based on this assessment, practitioners can prepare fact-based alternative accounts, and either continue monitoring the situation while preparing for a quick response, or deploy pre-emptive prebunking or reactive debunking interventions, depending on the traction of the misinformation.
Prebunking can take various forms, from simple warnings to more involved literacy interventions. Debunking should provide a plausible alternative cause for an event or factual details, preface the misinformation with a warning and explain any logical fallacies or persuasive techniques used to promote the misinformation. Debunking should end with a factual statement. Practitioners must be aware that simple retractions will be insufficient to mitigate the impact of misinformation, and that the effects of interventions tend to wear off over time 92 , , If possible, practitioners must therefore be prepared to act repeatedly Creating engaging, fact-based narratives can provide a foundation for effective correction , However, a narrative format is not a necessary ingredient , , and anecdotes and stories can also be misleading Practitioners can also help audiences discriminate between facts and opinion, which is a teachable skill , Whereas most news consumers do not notice or understand content labels forewarning that an article is news, opinion or advertising , , more prominent labelling can nudge readers to adjust their comprehension and interpretation accordingly.
For example, labelling can lead readers to be more sceptical of promoted content If pre-emptive correction is not possible or ineffective, practitioners should take a reactive approach. However, not every piece of misinformation needs to be a target for correction.
Due to resource limitations and opportunity costs, corrections should focus on misinformation that circulates among a substantive portion of the population and carries potential for harm Corrections do not generally increase false beliefs among individuals who were previously unfamiliar with the misinformation However, if the risk of harm is minimal, there is no need to debunk misinformation that few people are aware of, which could potentially raise the profile of its source.
Information consumers also have a role to play in combatting misinformation by avoiding contributing to its spread. For instance, people must be aware that they might encounter not only relatively harmless misinformation, such as reporting errors, outdated information and satire, but also disinformation campaigns designed to instil fear or doubt, discredit individuals, and sow division 2 , 26 , , People must also recognize that disinformation can be psychologically targeted through profit-driven exploitation of personal data and social media algorithms Thoughtless sharing can amplify misinformation that might confuse and deceive others.
Sharing misinformation can also contribute to the financial rewards sought by misinformation producers, and deepen ideological divides that disenfranchise voters, encourage violence and, ultimately, harm democratic processes 2 , , , , Thus, while engaged with content, individuals should slow down, think about why they are engaging and interrogate their visceral response.
People who thoughtfully seek accurate information are more likely to successfully avoid misinformation compared with people who are motivated to find evidence to confirm their pre-existing beliefs 50 , , Attending to the source and considering its credibility and motivation, along with lateral reading strategies, also increase the likelihood of identifying misinformation , , Given the benefits of persuading onlookers through observational correction, everyone should be encouraged to civilly, carefully and thoughtfully correct online misinformation where they encounter it unless they deem it a harmless fringe view , All of these recommendations are also fundamental principles of media literacy Indeed, a theoretical underpinning of media literacy is that understanding the aims of media protects individuals from some adverse effects of being exposed to information through the media, including the pressure to adopt particular beliefs or behaviours Ultimately, even if practitioners and information consumers apply all of these strategies to reduce the impact of misinformation, their efforts will be stymied if media platforms continue to amplify misinformation 14 , 16 , , , , , , These platforms include social media platforms such as YouTube, which are geared towards maximizing engagement even if this means promoting misinformation , and traditional media outlets such as television news channels, where misinformation can negatively impact audiences.
For example, two non-peer-reviewed preprints have found that COVID misinformation on Fox News was causally associated with reduced adherence to public health measures and a larger number of COVID cases and deaths , It is, therefore, important to scrutinize whether the practices and algorithms of media platforms are optimized to promote misinformation or truth.
In this space, policymakers should consider enhanced regulation. These regulations might include penalties for creating and disseminating disinformation where intentionality and harm can be established, and mandating platforms to be more proactive, transparent and effective in their dealings with misinformation. With regards to social media specifically, companies should be encouraged to ban repeat offenders from their platforms, and to generally make engagement with and sharing of low-quality content more difficult 12 , , , , Regulation must not result in censorship, and proponents of freedom of speech might disagree with attempts to regulate content.
However, freedom of speech does not include the right to amplification of that speech. Furthermore, being unknowingly subjected to disinformation can be seen as a manipulative attack on freedom of choice and the right to be well informed These concerns must be balanced.
A detailed summary of potential regulatory interventions can be found elsewhere , Other strategies have the potential to reduce the impact of misinformation without regulation of media content. Undue concentration of ownership and control of both social and traditional media facilitate the dissemination of misinformation Thus, policymakers are advised to support a diverse media landscape and adequately fund independent public broadcasters.
Perhaps the most important approach to slowing the spread of misinformation is substantial investment in education, particularly to build information literacy skills in schools and beyond , , , Overall, solutions to misinformation spread must be multipronged and target both the supply for example, more efficient fact-checking and changes to platform algorithms and policies and the consumption for example, accuracy nudges and enhanced media literacy of misinformation.
Individually, each intervention might only incrementally reduce the spread of misinformation, but one preprint that has not been peer-reviewed suggests that combinations of interventions can have a substantial impact More broadly speaking, any intervention to strengthen public trust in science, journalism, and democratic institutions is an intervention against the impacts of misinformation , Such interventions might include enhancing transparency in science , and journalism , more rigorous fact-checking of political advertisements , and reducing the social inequality that breeds distrust in experts and contributes to vulnerability to misinformation , Psychological research has built solid foundational knowledge of how people decide what is true and false, form beliefs, process corrections, and might continue to be influenced by misinformation even after it has been corrected.
However, much work remains to fully understand the psychology of misinformation. First, in line with general trends in psychology and elsewhere, research methods in the field of misinformation should be improved. Researchers should rely less on small-scale studies conducted in the laboratory or a small number of online platforms, often on non-representative and primarily US-based participants Researchers should also avoid relying on one-item questions with relatively low reliability Given the well-known attitudeï¿½behaviour gap ï¿½ that attitude change does not readily translate into behavioural effects ï¿½ researchers should also attempt to use more behavioural measures, such as information-sharing measures, rather than relying exclusively on self-report questionnaires 93 , 94 , Although existing research has yielded valuable insights into how people generally process misinformation many of which will translate across different contexts and cultures , an increased focus on diversification of samples and more robust methods is likely to provide a better appreciation of important contextual factors and nuanced cultural differences 7 , 82 , , , , , , , , Second, most existing work has focused on explicit misinformation and text-based materials.
Thus, the cognitive impacts of other types of misinformation, including subtler types of misdirection such as paltering misleading while technically saying the truth 95 , , , , doctored images , deepfake videos and extreme patterns of misinformation bombardment , are currently not well understood.
Non-text-based corrections, such as videos or cartoons, also deserve more exploration , Third, additional translational research is needed to explore questions about causality, including the causal impacts of misinformation and corrections on beliefs and behaviours.
This research should also employ non-experimental methods , , , such as observational causal inference research aiming to establish causality in observed real-world data , and test the impact of interventions in the real world , , , These studies are especially needed over the long term ï¿½ weeks to months, or even years ï¿½ and should test a range of outcome measures, for example those that relate to health and political behaviours, in a range of contexts.
Ultimately, the success of psychological research into misinformation should be linked not only to theoretical progress but also to societal impact Finally, even though the field has a reasonable understanding of the cognitive mechanisms and social determinants of misinformation processing, knowledge of the complex interplay between cognitive and social dynamics is still limited, as is insight into the role of emotion. Future empirical and theoretical work would benefit from development of an overarching theoretical model that aims to integrate cognitive, social and affective factors, for example by utilizing agent-based modelling approaches.
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Vaccine 36 , ï¿½ Shelby, A. Story and science. Vaccines Immunother. A systematic review of narrative interventions: lessons for countering anti-vaccination conspiracy theories and misinformation. A registered report testing the effectiveness of narrative versus non-narrative misinformation corrections. This book aims to assist students in writing a term paper in the social sciences or humanities.
It covers the process of writing from finding a subject or analysing a question through research and outlining to drafting and editing. Unlike many writing textbooks, it is based on study of actual academic papers in a variety of disciplines rather than adhering unquestioningly to the conventions of Freshman Composition classes.
Because it was written originally for students at Bilkent University, Ankara, the needs of second language students are given particular attention. Anne-Marie Deitering. When you hear the word research, you probably think of looking for articles in the library or surfing the Web to find quotes to finish a paper or project.
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