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Start your free trial. Show and hide more. Table of contents Product information. Who Should Be on a Scrum Team? How Do Scrum Teams Collaborate? How Do Teams Progress? Summary Call to Action 3. Improving Value Delivered What is Value? Perry This book teaches you how to evaluate a distributed system from the perspective of immutable objects. Get it now. Start your free trial Become a member now. Org , which you will find it very easy to read after reading this Scrum Training Manual.
You can easily pass the exam by reading this book carefully, or taking our video or classroom course. Introduction 1. Therefore, we need a project management method flexible enough to deal with many change requests that appear during the project and keep the project team productive. There are a number of systems designed to provide these two properties, and a group of them are called Agile Frameworks.
Scrum is a project management method of the Agile group; it is the most famous and the most broadly used one. Scrum is based on a certain process, which will be explained in the Scrum Events section of this book.
This Scrum process will not be effective, unless it is combined with certain roles and artifacts, which are the subject of the two other main sections of this book. Agile Manifesto not included in the PSM I exam In , a group of software developers while on a skiing vacation published a manifesto that has since been considered the heart of all Agile methods.
Scrum is a way of realizing this manifesto. The complete Agile manifesto is as follows: We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions Over processes and tools Working software Over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration Over contract negotiation Responding to change Over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.
Page 9, 1. When to use Scrum vs. When to use Traditional Methods not included in the PSM I exam Both approaches have their strengths, so it all depends on the type of the project and its environment. However both approaches have a good deal in common which are often forgotten; both have effective planning followed by execution, monitoring and controlling.
It is better to use the traditional approaches when there are few unknowns, project is less complex, easy to define exact requirements upfront and therefore easy to estimate and plan the project from the very beginning. Care should also be taken not to try to apply Scrum if the organization is not ready for it, e.
Many times the Scrum Team gets training in Scrum but the company management miss out. It is strongly advised not to start using Scrum until every role has received the necessary training and understands the roles and responsibilities. Page 10, 1. Developers work in a productive and predefined framework and the Scrum Master makes sure they are following Scrum. Scrum gets rid of all paper work and allows There are certain planning steps involved in the team to start developing right away.
All requirements in the form of stories must The Development Team can start working as be agreed before the Development Team is soon as the initial stories of the Product Backlog allowed to start working on the product.
Scrum is very easy to implement, even Using Scrum is a big change; It might seem easy without training. Scrum is just a set of simple rules.
Scrum is a set of rules and a framework, plus a compatible work culture and ethic. The Scrum Master is like a project manager. There is no one similar to a traditional project manager in a Scrum project. The Scrum Master makes sure the Scrum framework is followed. Scrum does not require you to have a There should be a justified reason to spend any Business Case. The Product Owner is responsible for ensuring that there is a feasible reason for performing the project and aligning the project with it.
Scrum allows the Development Team to A Team only decides on how to deliver; it is up to decide what will be delivered. The Product Owner is the project manager. The Product Owner only creates and maintains the Product Backlog, but does not manage the day to day activities of the Team. Scrum tells us everything about managing Scrum mostly deals with the definition and projects.
Many of the business oriented aspects of the project are done outside Scrum. The Product Owner is a representative from The Product Owner is one of the people from the the customer. Page 11, 1. Typical Scrum Timeline This section will give you a basic idea of how a Scrum project works. The business representatives has already agreed to build something for the organization and a Vision Statement and Product Map will be provided to define and describe the vision and the goal of the project.
The following diagram shows the complete timeline. The Vision Statement and product roadmap are not part of Scrum, but are essential parts of managing projects and are covered in other Agile frameworks such as DSDM Atern. The Vision Statement provides a concise description of the goals of the project which help the team stay focused on what is important from the organization point of view.
The Product Roadmap is an initial visual timeline of major product features to be delivered and is normally created by the Product Owner; one of the Scrum roles which will be explained later.
Gather user requirements, and turn them into deliverable features - these are called stories. Stories are normally written by the Product Owner and the requirements that make up these stories come from the customer. All these stories make up the Product Backlog. We also keep updating the Product Backlog during the project. Sprint Activities: 5. Sprint Planning meetings are held to plan what will go into a Sprint a fixed period of time used to deliver parts of the final product.
The Product Owner prioritizes these requirements and therefore decides on the contents of the Sprint Backlog. These stories features, functionalities, or deliverables make up the Sprint Backlog, so the Sprint Backlog is a list of all stories that will be developed in the next Sprint.
The Team breaks down expands these stories into tasks. The Team then takes 30 days or so to deliver an agreed amount of stories. The Team holds a Daily Scrum meeting of 15 minutes each day to collaborate with each other. At the end of the Sprint, the Team demonstrates the completed stories products to the customer in a Sprint Demo aka Sprint Review meeting.
The last activity is the Scrum Retrospective meeting, where the team reviews the Sprint and looks for ways of improving lessons learned. The Scrum Master makes sure the Scrum process is followed entirely and offers coaching to everyone involved.
Page 14, 2. Scrum Roles 3. Scrum Team There are three roles in a Scrum project; no less, and no more. We are not allowed to define any other roles, because it is harmful to the unity of the team, and it is not compatible with the philosophy of Scrum. It is possible for a single person to be assigned to more than one of the standard roles, but it is not recommended. The Scrum Team is a part of the performing organization the company which executes the project either for itself or as a contractor for an external customer.
Other persons can also be involved in the project but they are not considered internal to the project and Scrum theory does not have much to say about them. They should have a certain set of behaviors though e.
When the project is not internal you are not doing the project for your own company , you should also consider the customer as another stakeholder. You may or may not have a Page 17, 3.
In traditional methods, management efforts are separated and centralized; a subset of the project team is responsible for project management and others are only responsible for specialist activities. However, management and specialist efforts are not separated in Scrum. These two characteristics are designed to optimize flexibility, creativity, and productivity, needed for the Agile environment of Scrum. Page 18, 3. Role 1: The Product Owner Product Owner Scrum Master Development Team 1 person 1 person 3 to 9 people Full-time or part-time Full-time or part-time Full-time recommended Business oriented Scrum coach and facilitator Specialist Each project needs a business oriented person, aimed at maximizing the value of the product and the work of the Development Team.
In Scrum, this person is called Product Owner. Product Owners, like the two other roles, are from the performing organization, rather than from the client. This role belongs to one person.
There can be a committee to handle the responsibilities of this role, but in such a case, there should be one person representing this committee and we call this one person the Product Owner. They do not need to have application area knowledge of the project; they are focused on the business aspect. In software development projects for example, Product Owners do not need to be developers themselves, they just need to know a little about development, but a lot about how the business operates.
The Product Owner is responsible for the Product Backlog. The Product Backlog is a prioritized list of items aka stories or user stories that the client expects from the project; this is the main planning tool in Scrum. It is also the responsibility of the Product Owner to make sure that each item user story is easy to understand for the Scrum Team, and other stakeholders. Product Owners should communicate effectively with the customer the inevitable success factor in every project management method , and use the information to keep the Product Page 19, 3.
They also measure the performance of the project, forecast the completion date, and make this information transparent to all stakeholders. Communications Requirements Communications Performing Organization Customer Product Owners understand the business, so they can rank each Product Backlog item based on its return on investment as well as any other factor they find suitable for the business point of view of the project.
The items will be sorted based on their value, so the higher they are on the list, the sooner they will be developed by the Development Team. The entire organization must respect the Product Owner decisions for the project to be successful. No one, even the CEO, should allow themselves to try to override those decisions, and no one should tell the Development Team what item to deliver, except for the Product Owner who sets and orders the items.
Page 20, 3. Role 2: The Scrum Master Product Owner Scrum Master Development Team 1 person 1 person 3 to 9 people Full-time or part-time Full-time or part-time Full-time recommended Business oriented Scrum coach and facilitator Specialist Scrum Masters are those who fully understand Scrum, and help the Scrum Team by coaching them, and ensuring that all Scrum processes are implemented correctly.
The Scrum Master is a management position, which manages the Scrum process, rather than the Scrum Team. Besides ensuring that the Development Team understands and uses Scrum correctly, the Scrum Master also tries to remove impediments to the Development Team, facilitates their events, and trains and coaches them.
The Scrum Masters help the Product Owners too, by helping or consulting them on finding techniques, communicating information, and facilitating related events. The responsibilities of the Scrum Masters are not limited to the Scrum Team. They should also help those outside the Scrum Team understand the appropriate interactions with the Scrum Team to maximize the value created by the Scrum Team. The Scrum Master usually leads the organization in its effort to adopt Scrum.
It is possible for a single person to be both Scrum Master, and a member of the Development Team, although this is not recommended. Role 3: The Development Team Product Owner Scrum Master Development Team 1 person 1 person 3 to 9 people Full-time or part-time Full-time or part-time Full-time recommended Business oriented Scrum coach and facilitator Specialist Members of the Development Team are application area experts that are responsible for delivering backlog items, and managing their own efforts.
They should be cross-functional; being capable of doing the A to Z of the creation of each Product Backlog item.
They should be self-organized; find their own way instead of receiving orders. They should be aligned with the goal of the project instead of working blindly. A task might be assigned to a single member throughout the Sprint, but the whole Development Team will be responsible and accountable for that task; no individual owns any task.
The Development Team delivers the final product of the project in step by step Increments, as defined in the Product Backlog. They always work in a product-based way. It is highly recommended for members of the Development Team to work full-time in a single project, to stay focused and agile. The composition of the Development Team should not change so often.
If there is a need to change team members, then this change should not happen during a Sprint and there will be a short-term decrease in productivity when the composition of the team changes. Scrum is mostly effective when there are 3 to 9 Development Team members. For large projects, we can use a scaled model with multiple Scrum Teams. However, the use of multiple teams is not common in Scrum. Page 22, 3. Other Roles You might have the temptation to give Development Team members more specific titles, such as designer, tester, quality inspector, and team leader; but Scrum does not allow this!
All members should have the same role, and the same title: Development Team member. Scrum is completely depended on collaboration and team-work.
Development Team members should be united and completely aligned with the goal of the project. If you give them different titles or roles, they will focus on their own specific role in the project instead, and they might not pay enough attention to the final product which is necessary for agile projects.
Each Development Team member is responsible for all the outputs created in the Development Team, even though each of them might be focused on a specific set of tasks. Now that we have reviewed all the Scrum roles, you might ask yourself, who is the project manager?
The answer is simple: there is no such role in Scrum; and none of the 3 roles of Scrum act as a traditional project manager. Some people consider the Scrum Masters to be the equivalent to traditional project managers; but it is not true, because the Scrum Master responsibilities are very different than a traditional project manager.
So, a better question to ask is: what happens to project management? The project management responsibilities are distributed among the three roles of Scrum and there is no centralized project management in Scrum. Page 23, 3. Scrum Events 4. Sprint: Each Scrum project is a set of Sprints. A Sprint is a container for the four other events as represented in the above diagram , development effort, and the maintenance of the Product Backlog. Sprint Planning: Sprint Planning is the first event inside a Sprint.
The Scrum Team plans the items they are going to deliver in the Sprint and the way they will deliver them. During the Sprint, the Development Team holds a daily meeting normally 15 minutes to coordinate the work for the next 24 hours. This meeting is called the Daily Scrum.
Sprint Review: Before the end of the Sprint, the Development Team presents demonstrates the outcome of the Sprint to the customer and receives feedback. This meeting is called Sprint Review also known as Sprint Demo. Sprint Retrospective: After the Sprint Review and just before the Sprint is over, the Development Team holds an internal meeting to review the Sprint and use it to improve the process lessons learned in the next Sprint.
This meeting is called Sprint Retrospective. The events are designed to enable critical transparency, inspection, regularity, and adaptation. We prefer to use these predefined meetings with fixed objectives and maximum durations instead of ad-hoc meetings, which most likely waste our time.
There is an essential concept in Agile methods, called time-box: a predefined fixed maximum duration of time. In order to maximize productivity, all of the Scrum events must be time-boxed. It is our way of staying focused and getting things done in an ever-changing environment. A time-box is a fixed period of time in which we freeze the target and work with full focus on certain tasks or objectives. Time-boxed events Page 25, 4. All the changes are applied only when one time-box is finished and we are ready to start the next one.
The duration of a time-box should be agreed upon and fixed. We are free to change the duration based on lessons learned, but not frequently, and never based on single occasions. An Increment is developed in each Sprint. An Increment is a potentially releasable part of the final product.
An Increment is a sum of all Product Backlog items completed so far in a project and this Increment keeps getting bigger after each Sprint. Therefore you can consider each new Increment at the end of a Sprint to be an updated version of the previous Increment with new features and functionalities, which may or may not be actually released put into use , but should always be potentially releasable.
Customers usually request changes when they see the Increment during the Sprint Review , and we note these new requests in the Product Backlog.
Sprint 5 Sprint 6 Sprint 7 Sprint 8 Sprint 9 Increment 5 Increment 6 Increment 7 Increment 8 Sprint is a time-boxed event, which means we should fix its duration at the beginning of the project and do not change it frequently or occasionally. Sprints are usually fixed for one month or less. An important point is that we do not change the items of the Sprint Backlog after the Sprint is started and the plans are set.
The Sprint Goal discussed further in Sprint Planning should not change either. The Product Owner and the Development Team might try to clarify and re-negotiate the scope as more is learned as more is leaned about the items to be delivered, but will not change the Sprint Backlog.
Even the composition of the Development Team Page 26, 4. These constraints are designed to make it possible to focus and get things done. Each item story in the Product Backlog should normally be developed completed in a single Sprint as this is much easier to manage. An Increment is the sum of all the completed items during a Sprint and all previous Sprints. Sprint Time boxes: Most companies use Sprint time boxes of 2 to 4 weeks. If we use time- boxes longer than one calendar month for Sprints, it will be likely for the unapplied changes to become large enough to create problems.
This will increase the complexity and risk. Therefore, we should keep the Sprints no more than one calendar month. Sprints should not be too short either, because we would not be able to produce complete Backlog items during it. Our goal is to deliver the final product item by item, inside the Sprints; we do not want to split a single Product Backlog item among several Sprints. Can a Sprint be cancelled?
Even though each Sprint is frozen and does not change, the Product Owner has the authority to cancel a Sprint. This can happen when the Sprit Goal becomes obsolete, due to changes in the Product Backlog, strategies, approach, etc. As soon as the Product Backlog is mature enough has the necessary number of stories which will provide the information for the Sprint, the Product Owner and the Development Team can start the first Sprint.
The first thing to do in each Sprint is Sprint Planning. Sprint Planning is a time-boxed meeting, usually fixed to 8 hours for a one month Sprint, or shorter for Sprints of less than a month. All three roles should attend this meeting. The Development Team should estimate the capacity of work it can deliver in a single Sprint. The Product Owner has already ranked and ordered the Product Backlog based on the value of the items. The Product Owner also ensures that the items stories are easy to understand.
The Development Team then selects an appropriate number of items from the top of the Product Backlog, and puts them in the Sprint Backlog, to deliver in the current Sprint. The amount of work for each item is estimated by the Development Team and the total amount of work of the selected Product Backlog items is close to the estimated capacity of the Development Team.
Following the selection of the items, the Scrum Team should draft a Sprint Goal. The Sprint Goal is an objective that should be met within the Sprint through the implementation of the Product Backlog. This is a sample Sprint Goal: We are going to enable all the essential parts of the website store to set up a complete purchase process. This makes other features of the website more meaningful to the customer.
The Product Backlog should be ordered in a way that facilitates setting Sprint Goals. The scope of the Sprint, which is made up of the items selected from the Product Backlog, might need to have more details through the Sprint. These details should be aligned with the Sprint Goal, and likely re-negotiations for them should be done in presence of the Product Owner. The Sprint Goal is also included in the Sprint Backlog. This is the last part of the Sprint Backlog.
The Sprint planning is not necessarily completed in this Page 28, 4. A detail plan, as shown in the next figure, is a breakdown of a Product Backlog item into detailed tasks needed to be done in order to create the item. Each task might have estimates, dependencies, and similar information to make tracking possible. A single Product Backlog item story Tasks needed for getting the item done A plan for developing the item The Sprint Backlog will be ready at the end of this meeting and the Development Team should be able to describe what items they will deliver through the Sprint, and how they will do it.
There is no specific rule on documenting, storing, and presenting the Sprint Backlog. It can be written on a board wall chart similar to one shown in the following figure. Page 29, 4. These tasks define what the Development Team will do to deliver each item, and they are responsible for preparing them.
Some tasks are created at the Sprint Planning meeting, and some others throughout the Sprint. The Sprint Backlog consists of the following: 1. The Sprint Goal 2. Selected items from the Product Backlog, to be delivered through the Sprint 3. The next figure shows the same Sprint after the first item is complete and items 2 and 3 are in progress. Page 30, 4. Items in the Sprint Backlog usually have the same order they had in the Product Backlog, therefore, the Development Team should work on the higher ordered items first.
Page 31, 4. It must be held on a daily basis. During the Daily Scrum, each member of the Development Team should answer these three questions: 1. What has been accomplished since the last meeting?
What will be done before the next meeting? What obstacles are in the way? They should assess progress towards the Sprint Goal and forecast the likelihood of completing the items before the Sprint is over. The Daily Scrum meeting should be held at the same time and place throughout the Sprint, to minimize the complexity. It is just for the Development Team; it is not a status meeting for all the stakeholders.
The Development Team should also monitor Sprint progress each day and therefore it is a good idea for the Sprint board wall chart to be visible during the Daily Scrum meeting. They can use a burn-down chart to track their remaining work and check to see if they are going to complete all items before the end of the Sprint.
Page 32, 4. Burn-Down Charts are discussed further in the next section. If the Sprints are shorter then this meeting will be proportionally shorter. The presentation of the Increment in this meeting is intended to collect feedback and raise change requests at the earliest time possible. We welcome changes in Scrum and encourage them to be demanded, because it increases the satisfaction of the customer and will create a final product that better matches the needs of the customer.
Page 33, 4. The Development Team demonstrates and explains the items. The Product Owner discusses the status of the Product Backlog and the likely completion dates based on the progress.
Project Increment Status demo Feedback Performing Organization Customer Finally, the whole Scrum Team collaborates on revising the Product Backlog based on the output of the Sprint and the feedback received from the customer. If the Sprint is shorter than one month, this meeting will be proportionally shorter.
After the Sprint Review and just before the end of the Sprint, another meeting will be held, aimed at process improvement learning lessons , which is called Sprint Retrospective. There is a rule: we should always look for ways to improve. It does not matter how little the improvement is, there should be an improvement.
This meeting is a formal opportunity for improvement, even though we do not limit our improvement to the results of this meeting. We will review inspect the Sprint, with regards to people, relationships, processes, and tools, and identify ways of improving them in the next Sprint.
Page 34, 4. Activity: Product Backlog Grooming Besides the time boxed event discussed before, there is also an ongoing activity in Scrum projects called Product Backlog grooming. It is the act of reviewing and revising Product Backlog items, which typically involves adding detail, estimates, and order to them. The Product Owner is responsible for ordering prioritizing the items and the Development Team is responsible for estimating those items. The main difference between this activity and the five Scrum events is that Scrum events are all time-boxed, but grooming is an ongoing activity that happens throughout the Sprint.
Slack the PSM I exam! It does not matter how much we work; what we produce is important. We should be product-oriented, rather than activity-oriented. One way of being productive, is to limit the work time to a reasonable amount, and have frequent off times.
That is why it is recommended but not necessary to have a slack between each two Sprints. Slacks can also be used for reading articles, taking part in courses or workshops, spending time on creative projects, etc. We will be back after the slack, and repeat the same cycle over and over again, each time with a little improvement, until the final product of the project is delivered, and the client is completely satisfied with it.
Note that the slack is not an event and the official Scrum Org does not mention it. Page 35, 4. There are six artifacts in Scrum: 1. Product Backlog: An ordered list of everything aka stories that might be needed in the final product 2.
Sprint Backlog: Selected items stories from the Product Backlog to be delivered through a Sprint, along with the Sprint Goal and plans for delivering the items and realizing the Sprint Goal 3.
Increment: The set of all the Product Backlog items completed so far in the project up to the end of a certain Sprint 4. Monitoring Progress towards a Goal: The performance measurement and forecast for the whole project 6.
Monitoring Sprint Progress: The performance measurement and forecasts for a single Sprint Items 5 and 6 might look more like activities, but they are considered artifacts in the Scrum Guide, and therefore we will explain them as so. You can imagine their output tracking information, burn-down charts, etc. Artifact 1: Product Backlog The Product Backlog is an ordered list of everything that might be needed in the final product of the project, in other words parts of the expected final product a wishlist.
All items are described in simple business language non-technical and all of them are presentable to every stakeholder. Every requirement and every change in the project will be reflected in the Product Backlog. Page 37, 5. We do not wait until the Product Backlog is complete to start delivering the items; the first Sprint can be started as soon as the Product Backlog has a sufficient number of stories defined. The Product Owner sets a number of factors to determine the value of each item for the business.
Return on investment is usually one of the factors. All these factors will be summarized into one value importance and this is shown with each item. The Product Backlog items will then be ordered based on their value, in a way that the higher an item is, the sooner it will be delivered by the Development Team.
As the items located at top of the Product Backlog will be delivered sooner, they will also be more detailed and clear compared to the lower items. The next figure shows a sample set of Product Backlog items presented in a number of cards. The Product Backlog is an ordered list of items stories Each Product Backlog item also has a work estimate. These estimates are solely done by the Development Team, and are used in comparison to the capacity of the Development Team in a single Sprint, to determine the number of items that will be selected for that certain Sprint.
Additional information might be added to each item to help the Scrum Team take control. Page 38, 5. This is also a good example of a Scrum tool. These are the different parts of this dialog box: 1.
Story Description ï¿½ It is useful to store all the relevant information here, so that the whole Scrum Team can have access to it. Alerts ï¿½ Optional custom alerts can be set here. Due Date ï¿½ You can add optional custom due dates and use them to track stories. For example, you have decided in the middle of the Sprint part of the detailed planning to finish a certain story in a particular date, and you set that date here.
Complexity ï¿½ It is a field used to define the nature of the story and can be used for Sprint Planning. Usually the more complex a story is, the more uncertain its estimate would be. Estimate ï¿½ The estimated volume of the story determined by the Development Team. Categories ï¿½ When there are lots of stories in the backlog, it is a good idea to categorize them for ease of access and maintenance.
This can act as a normal WBS Page 39, 5. Assignments ï¿½ The story can be assigned to any person in the team. However, the whole Scrum Team would remain accountable for it.
Tracker ï¿½ You can record time spend on each story for further analysis, refining estimates, billing, etc. Colors ï¿½ You can set different colors to each story to differentiate them visually in the Scrum board.
Tasks ï¿½ You can breakdown the story into tasks detailed planning and track them separately. A simple progress would be calculated for each story based on the number of completed tasks.
Tasks are created by the Development Team. Change Log ï¿½ The history of the changes made in this story such as creation of tasks would be stored to be used later. Attachments ï¿½ You can attach relevant documents and use the software as a document management tool. Comments ï¿½ Each member of the Scrum Team can leave comments and collaborate with others.
This field is very helpful and we always ask team members to use it. Additional fields ï¿½ If all of the above fields are not enough for you, you can define your own custom fields and use them for other planning and control needs.
One important use of Scrum tools is collaboration. Collaboration features are more important when the Scrum Team is not co-located and traditional ways of collaboration are not possible. Page 40, 5. The Product Owner has identified the stories, but the estimates are not done yet question marks on the right side of the rows. Each line represents a story in the Product Backlog.
The Product Backlog is created more based on discussion rather than documentation. The Product Backlog items aka stories should be easy to understand for non-technical stakeholders.
Page 41, 5. Now the volume of work of items are estimated and added. Estimates for higher items are usually more precise.
A sample screenshot from online Scrum tool, ScrumDo The total amount of work in this sample is shown to be points. It is common to break the large stories such as the tenth story in the sample which is estimated points into two or more stories later. Sometimes multiple Scrum Teams work on the same project. The Product Backlog is a representation of the scope of the final product and therefore, there should be only one Product Backlog, no matter how many Scrum Teams are working on the project.
Page 42, 5. However, it might be necessary to get more information, justify, or clear some of the items during the Sprint, which should be done in the presence of the Product Owner.
The detailed plan which is normally not complete at the end of the Sprint Planning will become more complete as the Sprint continues.
Page 43, 5. It is time to select the next Sprint and define its backlog. Available items in the Product Backlog to be added to the Sprint Backlog. A sample screenshot from online Scrum tool, ScrumDo Page 44, 5. In this case, all we can choose for the Sprint is shown in the next figure. Stories moved from the Product Backlog to the Sprint Backlog. A sample screenshot from online Scrum tool, ScrumDo Now we have four items with an estimate of 44 points.
We cannot add the next Product Backlog item, because it has 40 points and we only have about 6 points free in our Sprint capacity. Page 45, 5. A sample screenshot from online Scrum tool, ScrumDo Page 46, 5. Amount of time left from the Sprint time box. Stories selected for the Sprint and their summary information.
A sample screenshot from online Scrum tool, ScrumDo This screen acts like a dashboard and we can use it to plan and track the items. In the next figure for example, some of the items from the top of the list are broken down into tasks. Most Scrum tools are equipped with collaborative features, which are especially useful for remote teams adding comments and sharing ideas for example. Page 47, 5. A sample screenshot from online Scrum tool, ScrumDo As we go through the Sprint, some tasks and items get Done and more items are detailed.
This story is under progress, and 3 out of its 6 tasks are finished. Stories at the end of the list are not detailed broken down into tasks as we are getting closer to them. A sample screenshot from online Scrum tool, ScrumDo The Scrum tools usually update the burn-down chart as we progress through the Sprint.
Page 48, 5. Sprint stories are distributed Information for the among different columns based current Sprint. This icon shows that the story is broken down into tasks. Time box of the current Sprint. A sample screenshot from desktop Scrum tool, Eylean The columns of the Kanban board are customizable and we can add as many steps as needed, such as designing, developing, testing, and integrating. Each card would be moved from left to right to visually indicate its current state.
We can also incorporate the good practice of Kanban, limiting work in progress, by limiting the number of allowed cards in each column. By accepting this limitation, we accept to focus on a few number of stories at each point in time and get them done instead of starting new stories. The Product Owner may or may not release a certain Increment, but it should be releasable shippable. The next figure shows how the number of stories in the Product Backlog decreases Sprint by Sprint, as the number of features in the Increments increases.
Page 50, 5. Artifact 5: Monitoring Progress toward a Goal Up to now, we have used the burn-down chart to visualize the progress of development during a Sprint. You can also use a burn-down chart to visualize the progress of the whole project and this is called the project burn-down chart. The Product Owner is responsible to monitor the progress of the whole project toward its goal. This should be done at least once per Sprint Review. The Product Owner determines the amount of remaining work and compares it to the remaining work of the previous Sprints, and forecasts the completion date of the project.
All stakeholders should have access to this information. The project burn-down chart shows the amount of remaining work, instead of the amount of completed work; therefore, the line for actual performance goes downward as we proceed and the faster it goes down, the happier we will be! Remaining Work Burn-Down Chart 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Time The vertical axis remaining work shows the amount of work which is a sum of all the estimates for each item in the Product Backlog , and the horizontal axis shows the amount of time passed from the beginning of the project or the number of Sprints passed.
Page 51, 5. This line acts as our planned progress, and will be used to compare to our actual values. Artifact 6: Monitoring Sprint Progress Besides the monitoring done for the whole project, we should also monitor the progress of each single Sprint throughout its life. This is the responsibility of the Development Team and should be done at least once per Daily Scrum. This information is used to calculate the likelihood of achieving the Sprint Goal and completing all items of the Sprint Backlog.
Page 52, 5. Page 53, 5. Summary 6. The Product Owner also monitors the progress of the whole project. All of them together are called Scrum Team. Page 55, 6. Each Sprint is a time box of no more than one month, during which an Increment of a potentially shippable product will be delivered. A Sprint is a container of the following events: 1. Sprint Planning: An 8 hour meeting during which Scrum Team prepares the Sprint Backlog, the plan for the current Sprint including the items that will be developed 2.
Daily Scrum: A daily 15 minute meeting for the Development Team members to inspect the work since the last meeting and synchronize their work and plan for the next 24 hours.
Sprint Review: A 4 hour meeting at the end of a Sprint for the Scrum Team and other stakeholders to inspect the Increment what has been delivered so far and collect feedback from the users which help define or update the items descriptions in the Project Backlog. Sprint Retrospective: A 3 hour meeting by the Scrum Team to discover lessons than can be incorporated in future Sprints.
The Sprint itself and all other events are time-boxed: they have a maximum duration and the Scrum Team tries to achieve a certain goal during that each event. The events are all designed to enable critical transparency, inspection, regularity, and adaptation. Page 56, 6. Page 57, 6. You now have a good understanding of Scrum and can start using Scrum in your projects.
Regards, Nader K. Self-Assessment This section provides 30 questions and answers to help you review the content of this introduction book and better understand Scrum. To add more value and increase your understanding, all questions are based on an imaginary project in an imaginary company. The scenario will be explained along with the questions.
It is important to learn from the questions the first time you try them and then you should be able to answer the majority of the questions on the second attempt. They deliver small and medium projects. They have decided to test Scrum for the first time. They are in the middle of four projects right now, and a new project named S-Proj will be started soon.
They wish to use Scrum in this project. So lets pretend we are part of this S-Proj project. Do we X-Co need to discuss the Scrum method with the customer and receive its approval to use Scrum in this project? Yes, because it changes our delivery method B.
Yes, because it increases our return on investment C. No, because it is our internal way of managing the project D.
No, because it is acceptable nowadays to use Scrum Q2. We are going to assign John our marketing manager to take on the role of Product Owner; but we are not sure about this as John has recently joined X-CO and he is not an expert in software development. Should we choose another person instead? Yes, we need an expert who can participate fully with the specialist work and is capable of communicating with the customer B.
Yes, we need an expert who can participate fully with the specialist work and who can be part of the Development Team C. We are going to choose either of Mary or Mark for the role of Scrum Master.
Which one is a better choice for the role of Scrum Master? Mary, because she knows Scrum and she will learn project management soon C. Mark, because he knows project management and will learn Scrum soon Q4. We are going to assign a number of our developers to the Team.
We have the choice of 1 using 8 part-time developers that also work on other projects of our company, or 2 change the arrangement of teams and assign only 4 of them full-time and hire a new person to complete the Team.
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Book excerpt: For Scrum Teams and Agile Leaders who want to enable greater business agility, this book is a practical guide to overcoming challenges and maximising the benefits of Scrum, unlike books that are focused on basic understanding of the framework, or are too heavy on theory. Mastering Professional Scrum is based on years of training, coaching, and working with Scrum to deliver products across many industry sectors, from start-ups to multinationals all around the world.
The book begins with an overview of why business agility matters and why Scrum works. Then the authors cover the situations that cause organisations to have to change the way they do things, and the challenges of a rapidly evolving marketplace.
Adopting an approach that is based on high quality and fast feedback helps to manage risk and provide the flexibility to adapt to changing requirements and situations.
The importance of professionalism in the industry is introduced. This common pitfall will be examined using a case study to be referenced throughout the book. The case study will be representative of where many existing Scrum Teams and organisations may find themselves - a team has been doing Scrum and has seen some benefits, but there are still many challenges that arise from both within the team and from pressures in the organisation and the market.
Mastering Professional Scrum is based on years of training, coaching, and working with Scrum to deliver products across many industry sectors, from start-ups to multinationals all around the world. The book begins with an overview of why business agility matters and why Scrum works.
Then the authors cover the situations that cause organisations to have to change the way they do things, and the challenges of a rapidly evolving marketplace. Adopting an approach that is based on high quality and fast feedback helps to manage risk and provide the flexibility to adapt to changing requirements and situations.
The importance of professionalism in the industry is introduced. This common pitfall will be examined using a case study to be referenced throughout the book.
The case study will be representative of where many existing Scrum Teams and organisations may find themselves - a team has been doing Scrum and has seen some benefits, but there are still many challenges that arise from both within the team and from pressures in the organisation and the market. Mastering Professional Scrum.
WebApr 7, ï¿½ï¿½ (PDF/ePub) Mastering Professional Scrum: A Practitioner's Guide to Overcoming Challenges and Maximizing the Benefits of Agility Writen By Stephanie . WebNov 5, ï¿½ï¿½ Step-By Step To Download this book: Click The Button "DOWNLOAD" Sign UP registration to access Mastering Professional Scrum: A Practitioners Guide to . WebMastering Professional Scrum DOWNLOAD EBOOK Book Synopsis Mastering Professional Scrum by: Stephanie Ockerman Download or read book Mastering .